Atrophic gastritis, symptoms and pathophysiology.
Atrophic gastritis, the symptoms of whichcharacterized by dyspepsia, pain in the epigastric region, is the occurrence of an autoimmune inflammatory response to the gastric mucosa that helps to reduce the normal physiological recovery of cells in the gastric mucosa. As a result, atrophic changes in the membrane, motor (peristaltic) and gastric secretion-producing disorders occur. With such a disease as atrophic gastritis, the symptoms of the disease most often appear in middle age and in the elderly. Inflammatory reaction can capture not only the superficial epithelial layer and glandular apparatus, it can also spread to the entire mucous layer. In the most severe cases, the process can cover the interstitial and other layers of the stomach wall.
Atrophic gastritis, symptoms and clinicalthe manifestations of which are quite diverse, arise when external and internal factors are affected. Exogenous factors include: poor and irregular meals, spirits, long-term medication and others. Internal (endogenous) causes are chronic infections, concomitant diseases of organs participating in digestion, prolonged intoxication in harmful production, hereditary predisposition.
Chronic gastritis gastroenterologists are divided intotwo forms: gastritis of type A and B. Chronic atrophic gastritis refers to gastritis of type A. This form of the disease is manifested by the appearance of autoimmune inflammation, as a result of which antibodies to their own lining cells develop. As a result, their proteins become denatured, a cellular reaction and inflammation of the mucous membrane occur. A distinctive feature of this gastritis is a process aimed at the atrophy of the mucous membrane with a progressive decrease in the number of gastric sacks. It is located mainly in the region of the bottom and body of the stomach, and also release antral atrophic gastritis. The mucosal repair is broken, the formation of gastric juice decreases.
When diagnosed, atrophic gastritis symptomscharacterized by the appearance of the patient's complaints of not too pronounced, dull and persistent pain in the stomach, heartburn, dyspepsia, bloating and increased gas formation, stool. The intensity of manifestations depends on the number of active cells. With this disease, the formation and acidity of gastric juice decreases. As a result, the main symptom of atrophic gastritis is the severity of the stomach, a feeling of satiety after a small amount of food eaten. Often, atrophic gastritis is accompanied by other diseases of the digestive organs: pancreatitis, intestinal dysbiosis, cholecystitis. Atrophy of the mucosa causes a violation of the assimilation of vitamin B12, often there is B12-deficiency anemia.
Diagnostic measures are reduced to the correctDifferential diagnosis between existing forms of gastritis. The main diagnostic measure is the fibroadastroduodenoscopy (FGS), taking a biopsy (piece of organ tissue). A biopsy is usually performed from several sites. Explore the secretory function of the stomach and the composition of the gastric juice.
Treatment of atrophic gastritis is complex andlasting. It is aimed at maintaining normal production of gastric juice, its acidity. At especially severe atrophy, substitution therapy is performed, prescribing hydrochloric acid in therapeutic concentration. The obligatory measure is a diet, a fractional food. Treatment in sanatoria with mineral springs is welcomed.