Causes, symptoms and treatment of tachycardia. Consequences of tachycardia
Tachycardia is a pathological phenomenon consisting in an increase in heart rate (from 90 beats per minute). This is not an ailment, but a symptom that indicates the presence of a disease.
Therefore, you can not prescribe the treatment of tachycardia - ititself will begin to subside as the person passes therapy, assigned to him in connection with the identification of the cause of its appearance. Well, now it is worth telling, on the presence of what diseases it can indicate. Also, let us briefly outline their symptoms and treatment.
It is a common type of arrhythmia, in whichthe pulse exceeds the mark of 100 beats per minute. As a rule, sinus tachycardia indicates the presence of pathology of the heart, endocrine system, vessels or other organs.
However, sometimes in healthy peoplelike condition. The reason for this are physical activity, abundant feast, intense excitement or even a cup of strong black coffee. This is normal, because after a while the normal palpitation is restored, and the blood flow in the organs is not disturbed.
Before proceeding to consider the symptoms and treatment of sinus type tachycardia, it is worthwhile to tell why it is so called.
The origin of the term is logical. The word "sinus" indicates that the impulses for the contraction of the heart proceed from the main sinus node. So the rhythm remains regular. The frequency of contractions of the ventricles and atria remains the same. Arrhythmia increases gradually. In some cases, the pulse can reach 220 beats per minute. But the limit is usually 110-120.
Unfortunately, the pathological tachycardia of the sinustype leads to changes in the systemic circulation and in the heart. The muscle works at a frantic speed, in fact, to wear. The heart simply can not cope with its main task, which consists in delivering the right amount of blood in a small and large circle. Since at such a load its chambers do not fill up completely. What does this lead to?
Sinus tachycardia as a symptom
Over time, the heartbeat is steadily increasedleads to cardiomyopathy. This is the primary lesion of the heart, manifested in problems with the heart of a different nature. In this case, these include:
- Chronic and acute heart failure.
- Inflammation in the myocardium is of an autoimmune, infectious nature.
- Diseases of an ischemic nature (cardiosclerosis, infarction, angina pectoris).
- Acquired and congenital malformation.
- Inflammation in the inner and outer layers of the heart.
There are also non-cardiac causes that provokesinus tachycardia. Symptoms and treatment of their radically different, because the characters of the diseases are completely different. Although, as a rule, the following violations are diagnosed:
- Neurogenic. The main cause is an increasing level of stress. Manifestations: psychosis, neurosis, vegetative-vascular dystonia. There are, as a rule, emotionally labile and young people.
- Endocrine. The main reasons: hormone-producing tumors of the adrenal glands and an increased thyroid function.
It should list and symptoms of sinus tachycardia, the treatment of which will be discussed further. Alarms are the following:
- Well palpable, persistent heartbeat.
- Rapid fatigue even with minimal physical exertion.
- Feeling of lack of air and shortness of breath, which occurs even in a state of rest.
- Episodes of loss of consciousness.
- Insomnia, irritability, anxiety and emotional lability.
- Discomfort in the chest.
Often, if you ignore the treatment and symptomstachycardia leads to complications. A person can have prolonged and frequent seizures, the chambers of his heart will gradually expand, and the myocardium will begin to weaken. Perhaps even the appearance of stagnation in the circles of the circulation. The probability of developing progressive angina and acute failure is high.
Treatment of sinus tachycardia
As mentioned earlier, it is notrequires the use of some specific methods. Treatment of tachycardia is aimed at eliminating the cause. This eventually leads to the fact that the normal rhythm frequency is restored.
In addition to having to give up alcohol,smoking, strong coffee and tea, you will need to visit a doctor. Only he can diagnose, identifying the exact cause of accelerated heartbeat, and prescribe a therapy. But usually the following drugs are prescribed:
- Drugs aimed at suppressing the production of thyroid hormones and thyrotropin. Examples: Carbimazole, Tyrozol, Tiamazol, Mercazolil, Propylthiouracil. Assign for hyperthyroidism.
- Preparations of iron. Examples: "CosmoFer", "Venofer", "Heferol", "Iron Gluconate 300". Indication is anemia.
- Sedatives, as well as sedativesplant and synthetic origin. Examples: Dragee "Evening", extract of medicinal valerian, "Tenoten", "Persen", "Motherwort" and "Afobazol". Assign with depressive disorders, psychoses, stress and neurosis.
- Antibiotics of a wide spectrum (macrolides,cephalosporins and penicillin preparations). Examples: Amoxicillin, Flemoclav, Zinnat, Amoxiclav, Augmentin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin. Assign with angina and other infectious pathologies that affect the rhythm of the heart.
In particularly serious cases, the doctor may suggest transfusion of plasma and erythrocyte mass, as well as prescribe drugs that help restore the total volume of circulating blood.
Paroxysmal tachycardia: causes and symptoms
This type of arrhythmia is less common. Paroxysmal tachycardia, the symptoms and treatment of which will be discussed a little later, is characterized by a heart rate in the range from 140 to 220. They arise due to ectopic impulses leading to the replacement of the usual sinus rhythm.
The arrhythmia of this species is similar in etiology to a disease such as extrasystole. This untimely reduction of individual chambers of the heart or the entire muscle.
Paroxysmal tachycardia of the whole clearlyis felt. Its beginning is determined by a strong push in the area of the heart, after which the frequency of its contractions begins to actively increase. It ends all the same suddenly, but can last from a couple of seconds to several days.
Usually the immediate causes of this type of arrhythmia are the following diseases and factors:
- Myocardial infarction.
- Ischemic disease
- Arterial hypertension.
- Inflammation of the heart muscle.
- Myocardial dystrophy.
- Heart disease.
- Acute allergic reactions.
- Catheterization of the cavities of the heart, intervention.
- Reception of incorrectly selected drugs.
Before proceeding to the treatment of paroxysmal tachycardia, it is worth noting the symptoms of its manifestation. These include:
- Noise in the head and strong weakness.
- The feeling that the heart is contracting.
- The weakening of the strength of the limbs.
- Violation of sensitivity and speech.
- Nausea, sweating, bloating, fever, increased urination.
- Fainting and dizziness.
In the presence of alarming symptoms, it is better not to delay the approach to the cardiologist and the passage of electrocardiography.
How to treat paroxysmal tachycardia?
The answer to this question will only cardiologist. It is important to consider that the arrhythmia of this type can be of different types - ventricular, atrioventricular and atrial. Unfortunately, in most cases hospitalization is required. Since often this manifestation indicates the presence of acute deficiency.
It is possible to arrest arrhythmia with the help of vagalmaneuvers. These are the techniques by which it turns out to influence the vagus nerve. These include samples Ashner, Chermak-Goering and Valsalva, straining, rubbing with cold water.
However, all this only stops the attacks and symptoms. Treatment of tachycardia is carried out only through the introduction of drugs that have anti-arrhythmic effect. Usually, doctors prescribe such drugs:
- Novokainamid. Means with membrane stabilizing activity.
- Propranoloa. A drug that blocks beta-adrenergic receptors.
- "Aymalin." Indole alkaloid.
- "Quinidine". Quinine stereoisomer.
- "Ritmodan". Analogue of the previous drug.
- "Etmozin". Especially effective in supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles.
- Isoptin. It has anti-hypertensive, antiarrhythmic and antianginal effects.
- "Kordaron". Repolarization inhibitor.
If the treatment of tachycardia with drugs is ineffective, then the patient is prescribed electropulse therapy with further outpatient monitoring and anti-relapse therapy.
This is an extremely dangerous condition that threatens human life. It is characterized by abnormal heartbeat malfunctions.
The contractions of the ventricles are extremely fast.ineffective and uncoordinated. Their appearance provokes electrical chaotic impulses. The ventricles just tremble, as at the time of atrial fibrillation. Blood ejection is not carried out.
In simple terms, indiscriminate contraction equals cardiac arrest. If it does not stop, then death will come. Causes of atrial fibrillation are:
- Inadequate circulation in the myocardium. Arises as a result of coronary artery disease.
- Hypokalemia, manifested in a low concentration of potassium ions in the blood.
In this case, it is difficult to talk about the causes and treatment. Tachycardia of this type is a consequence of a serious illness. If fibrillation occurs, the following occurs:
- A person loses consciousness.
- Cramps appear.
- Lost pulse, pressure, heartbeat.
- The process of the death of the brain begins (oxygen does not enter it).
Only with the help of an electrocardiogram can one confirm the predisposition of a person associated with his disease, to fibrillation.
Emergency ambulance involves the resuscitation of the lungs and heart, as well as the relief of tachyarrhythmias with a discharge of a defibrillator. In the future, the normal rhythm is maintained with the help of medicines.
A visit to a cardiologist is required when you find symptoms of tachycardia. And treatment at home is not recommended to begin without passing the diagnosis and adequate medical recommendations.
The survey helps determine wherethe cause of heart palpitations, which causes such a condition - the lesion of the main muscle of the body or extracardiac factors. Also, only with the help of diagnostics one can find out what type of tachycardia a person suffers from - sinus or paroxysmal.
Naturally, first of all the person will be sent to the ECG. This is an informative and safe procedure that will help identify all irregularities in rhythm and in cardiac activity in general.
If there is a suspicion of intracardiac pathology, an MRI, EFI, and EchoCG may be indicated. As additional methods, they may resort to brain EEG and general blood analysis.
All these studies are necessary. Only by conducting a complete diagnosis, the doctor will be able to exclude endocrine disorders, blood diseases and pathological activity of the central nervous system.
Moreover, it is based on the results obtained.prescribe treatment of tachycardia. There are many drugs, and if a person decides to “prescribe” them himself, his body can react by worsening the condition.
Plus, not always on a visit to a cardiologist.ends diagnostics. So, if a person has extracardiac sinus tachycardia, then he is referred for consultation to a neurologist. It may even be prescribed psychotherapy and taking sedatives (neuroleptics, tranquilizers).
And if reflex or compensatorytachycardia, then first eliminate the causes of their appearance. Otherwise, therapy, the purpose of which is to reduce heart rate, will lead to aggravation of hemodynamic disorders and lower blood pressure.
Of course, the best way to treat tachycardia is tablets. It is possible to resort to folk remedies only after coordinating them with the doctor, and then only as a preventive measure. Here are some recipes:
- You need to take the motherwort herb and valerian root(200 g each) and mix them with chopped fruits of anise and yarrow grass (100 g each). Then take a tablespoon of the resulting collection and pour boiling water (300 ml). Give an hour to brew. Strain and drink throughout the day in equal portions. The course lasts 30 days. Then - a monthly break.
- In equal proportions mix valerian root,fruits of fennel and cumin, chamomile and mint. Every evening, prepare an infusion: pour a tablespoon of the collection with a glass of boiling water and leave for 1 hour. Strain and drink before bedtime. The course lasts 20 days.
- Green tea (1 tsp.) Mix with motherwort (1 h. l.), hawthorn fruits (1 tbsp. l.) and wild rose (1 tbsp. l.). Pour everything into a thermos, pour half a liter of boiling water. Let it sit for 30 minutes. Strain and drink this volume in two doses per day.
- Grind 2 walnuts, mix with honey (2 hours l.) and chopped fresh lemon slice. The resulting mass slowly chew and swallow. Drink a glass of water. There is such sweetness before going to bed, daily for three months.
- A tablespoon of lemon balm pour a glass of boiling water. Give an hour to infuse, then strain. Drink 100 milliliters a day for three months.
These are quite good concomitant medications for treating tachycardias. All of them are aimed at restoring the work of the heart and have a calming effect.
Features of food
So, above it was said about what tachycardia hassymptoms and treatment. It is worth recalling that it is also extremely necessary to observe the correct diet and milk-vegetable diet, by adhering to which, a person will provide his body with the necessary microelements and vitamins.
All consumed products should not load vessels and be easily digested. The basis of the diet is recommended to take:
- Figs, dried apricots, dates, raisins. In these dried fruits, the highest content of iron, magnesium and potassium.
- Fresh berries and fruits: pineapple, peach, cherry, banana, grapefruit, black currant, apricot.
- Low-fat dairy products: sour cream, cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt.
- Skimmed milk.
- Greens and vegetables: Jerusalem artichoke, cabbage, eggplant, lettuce, celery, beets, parsley.
- Low-fat meat: veal, turkey, chicken, pork.
- Egg (one per day).
- White lean fish.
- Bran and cereals.
- Herbal teas.
- Fresh juices, compotes, fruit drinks and fresh juices (both from berries and fruits, and from vegetables).
- Dried rose hips.
It is allowed to refill food with oil, but the daily volume should not be more than 15 ml. And you can only use vegetable (corn, flax).
When treating heart tachycardia, it is better to eat berries, fruits and vegetables raw. From cereals to cook puddings and porridge. You can make steam cutlets and meatballs from meat and fish, boil it and bake it.
What is forbidden?
In the process of preventing and treating symptomstachycardia pills and other drugs can help if a person does not aggravate the state by consuming prohibited foods that cause heart palpitations. These include:
- Tea, coffee, energy, soda (especially Coca-Cola).
- Spices, salt, soda.
- Hard-boiled or fried eggs.
- Fatty dairy products.
- Spicy, fatty, spicy, smoked dishes.
- Canned food and marinades.
- Sweets and pastries in abnormal quantities.
Also, to treat tachycardia in the homeconditions were effective, we must adhere to some recommendations. Limit yourself in the use of sugar and salt, consume food in small portions at regular time intervals, do unloading (1-2 times a week) and do not eat at night and do not overeat. Daily caloric content varies from 2500 to 3000 kcal.
They also need to be noted attention, since we are talking aboutsymptoms and treatment of tachycardia. This symptom is not as harmless as many may believe. After all, he signals that the work of the whole heart is broken, and indicates his need to work hard. Ignoring tachycardia is fraught with the following consequences:
- Violation of the conduction of the heart. Develops with failure.
- The occurrence of cerebral thromboembolism.
- Ischemic stroke.
- Rapid muscle wear. The heart is not getting enough power due to the accelerated mode of operation. As a result, the elasticity of its vessels and tissues is lost.
- Oxygen starvation. This is what causes persistent syncope and metabolic disorders.
- Pulmonary edema, cardiac asthma, arrhythmic shock.
That is why you need to go to a cardiologist.at the slightest sign of tachycardia. What kind of treatment is needed and what is the reason for its appearance in general, only he can say. It is strongly not recommended to prescribe medications for yourself or to hope that this “will pass by itself”.