Pension is ... What is a social and insurance pension
What for an elderly person is a pension? Is it important for him or not? Why? What are its types? What is a pension in terms of maintaining the stability of the social mechanism of interaction? For all these questions, you can find the answer in this article.
Pension is what?
This is the name of monthly cash payments, which are assigned to individuals as the main source of funds for subsistence under certain conditions. Three types of pensions are divided:
Each of them has its own characteristics, whichwill be discussed further in the article. The amount of payments that a person receives is determined by the highest state institutions. The list of persons who can count on such income is formed by federal laws. The main body, which deals with the affairs of pensioners, is the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation.
It is assigned when thethe disability of a person due to the achievement of his advanced age. To get it, you need to engage in labor or other useful activities. It can be paid at the onset of old age. It is appointed and when the individual has worked a certain period: in this case it will be a pension for long service. This allows you to cover all areas of human activity, taking into account most features.
Pension is the most common formremuneration for work for the benefit of society. Its size directly depends on the worked experience, earnings, as well as insurance premiums. By the way, earlier these parts were indexed separately. But in 2010 everything changed. And now the whole labor pension is indexed. Thanks to a special mechanism, the insurance part is not simply classified as a separate category. So, let's look at what an insurance pension is. What is it?
This is a monthly payment, which compensatescitizens wages or other income, which they obtained during employment. Also, people who are members of the insured family can claim these payments if they die.
What are the features of this income?It is necessary to know that a certain fixed payment is established. It is completely dependent on the type of insurance pension. Annually, the state indexes the amount of payment. It can be appointed ahead of time, but only under certain conditions. This is possible only if the person worked on such types of work, where an increased individual pension coefficient operates. An insurance pension is a type of payment in such a case, which begins when a man and a woman reach the age of 60 and 55 respectively. Individual social and professional categories of citizens have the right to this.
In practice, the term "allowance" would be more suitable for this concept. Social pension can be appointed in such situations:
- When you reach old age.Count on it can women and men (over 60 and 65 years old respectively) with a seniority of less than five years. At the moment, payments are planned at about 5 thousand rubles. In addition to the above individuals, representatives of indigenous minorities of the north can claim retirement. Here the term is as follows: 50 and 55 years for women and men, respectively. The government created a special list of nationalities, representatives of which are available such a pension. This is done only for those who live in the indigenous areas and engaged in fishing, typical for them: hunting, reindeer herding and so on.
- On loss of a breadwinner and disability.In the first case, this is available only to under-age children, as well as those who are under 23 years of age in full-time education in an educational institution. Disability pension can be obtained only if the person has been assigned 1, 2 or 3 group. And this must be confirmed by an act of medical examination. The sizes of payments fluctuate from 4 to 11,5 thousand rubles.
Features of receiving social pensions
The fact is that before there were legalcollisions. They were legally permitted only in 2010. It should be remembered that only a person who does not receive a labor pension can claim a social pension. The conditions are as follows:
- The person does not meet the requirements, due to which the working pension is calculated.
- First, an application was filed for the appointment of TP, but then it was withdrawn before the amount was set.
- There is a right to work pension, but the person did not apply for her calculation.
- TP was appointed, but its recipient refused it, having filed a corresponding application.
It is always necessary to remember that a person can expect to receive only one of the pensions.
The size of pensions in Russia and the world
Let's look at the size of thesepayments in the territory of the Russian Federation and in other countries of the world. Verified information will be collected, so in this article we present exact pensions in 2015:
- Social - 8300 rubles.
- Military invalids - 28,490 rubles.
- On loss of the supporter - 8040 rbl.
- On disability - 7994 rubles.
- Labor for old age - 13 900 rubles.
As a comparative example, we can citeand the average pension in Moscow is 14,000 rubles. Now let's go through the world. As objects of consideration will be different countries (including our neighbors). The amount of payments is transferred to Russian rubles:
- Ukraine - 4 thousand rubles.
- Belarus - 9916.24 rubles.
- Kazakhstan - 14,166 rubles.
- Greece - 32,468.59 rubles.
- Germany - 79,329.99 rubles.
- USA.Here the amount of payment is about 67 997 rubles. But it should be borne in mind that the pension in this country is in a special way. And its such a full sense can not be considered. Here the significant income of a pensioner is the profit from investments.
- Armenia. If the Ukrainian situation can be explained by the war and the unwillingness of the elites to work for the good of the country, then this state is simply characterized by a low pension, which amounts to 5,666.42 rubles.
- Bulgaria. It has the lowest figure in the entire European Union. It is 7932.99 rubles.
- Georgia. Because of the difficult economic situation in the country, the average payment is about 3399.85 rubles.
- Estonia. The size of pensions in it is at the level of Moscow. And is 14 449.37 rubles.
- Finland. The leader of our list. The pension in it in 2015 is 112,317.51 rubles.
On the Russian Federation we will say a word
As you can see, the pension is a pretty good onesupport for the elderly. Of course, due to a number of different factors it is inappropriate to compare only one parameter. In addition, it would not hurt to understand how much the consumer basket is in different countries and what it includes. But nevertheless pensioners help to pass their days more or less adequately.
As you can see, the Russian Federation can notboast the highest pension in the world. But in the CIS, things are very good. Of course, this is not the only parameter that must be resorted to in order to have an understanding of the standard of living. So, if we compare with Ukrainian pensions, then we can note a significant gap. But thanks to the fact that the main products of consumption are much lower in price than those sold in the Russian Federation, the difference is not as big as it seems at first glance. Therefore, to determine where the pensioners live better, it is necessary to look not only at the size of the state payments, but also on the cost of basic food, communal payments and medicines.