The judicial system of Great Britain
The judicial system of Great Britain is enoughan intricate and complex set of various judicial institutions, legal norms, customs and traditions. This entanglement is largely due to the fact that it bizarrely intertwined norms of the early Middle Ages, New time and the newest period.
In general, Great Britain is characterized by extremecareful attitude to the laws: here they know how to honor customs and traditions, which have not been one decade or even a century. So far, many local social institutions, including the judicial system of Great Britain, act according to the laws and royal decrees adopted in ancient times.
The judicial power of Great Britain has enougha complex structure in which two main levels are clearly visible: the local one, which closely interacts with the local self-government bodies, and the central one, whose jurisdiction extends to the whole territory of the state.
The laws of Great Britain distinguish the following varieties of local courts:
1. Courts of the magistrates are the lowest level of judicial power in the UK. Most often they consist of one judge and consider domestic disputes between spouses, petty crimes with minor punishments, and also suits with very small amounts. A feature of this court is that the judge here is not required to have a legal education, since the primary responsibility rests with his assistant clerks.
2. The courts of the fourth sessions, from the point of view of judicial legislation, constitute an appellate body for appealing against the decisions of the lower courts at the county level. From the point of view of their composition, the courts of the fourth sessions include all the magistrates of the given county, however, in fact, they rarely do. In addition to consideration of appeals, this type of court can act as a judicial body of first instance, in the case of serious and particularly serious criminal offenses.
3. Courts of counties are judicial bodies consisting of one or two professional judges and acting on the territory of the district assigned to them. The laws of the UK limit their scope of activity: county courts can disassemble and adjudicate exclusively in civil matters.
As for the central courts, the judiciaryGreat Britain's power at the highest level appears even more complicated and confusing than at the local level. The central courts include the Supreme Court, the Central Criminal Court in London, courts of visiting sessions, numerous special courts and the court of the House of Lords.
The whole judicial system of Great Britain is underControl of the Supreme Court, which is the highest judicial body of the kingdom. Structurally, it consists of the High Court of Appeal and the Court of Appeal, the first of which also includes the Court of the King's Bench and the Court of Wills, Divorce and Maritime Affairs.
The Central Criminal Court in London dismantlescriminal cases of crimes committed either directly in the capital of Great Britain, or within the boundaries of the London county. In addition, it deals with crimes committed outside the kingdom or on the high seas.
The judicial system of Great Britain assumesthe high responsibility that judges have in making decisions. Therefore, all judges, both in central bodies and in the field, are appointed directly by the ruling monarch in consultation with the Lord Chancellor, who not only heads the House of Lords, but also in combination is the head of all justice in the UK. It is also worth noting that the appointment of a judge in England is life-long.
A number of criminal and civil cases in the UKis considered in the jury. This court consists of one (rarely two) professional judge and twelve jurors. Here, after passing the entire trial, the jury endorses the verdict, on the basis of which the judge formulates the verdict. To make this or that verdict, at least ten votes of the jury are necessary.