Who invented the helicopter, in which year?
As history shows, authorship of manythe most important inventions are not so easy or impossible to establish. After all, the same ideas can arise in people who are separated by centuries or thousands of kilometers. This also applies to the question of who invented the first helicopter, since it is known about many talented scientists, engineers and designers who proposed various concepts for the creation of aircraft with vertical take-off.
Precisely to say, in what year the helicopter was invented,is difficult, since it is difficult to determine the reference point. If we talk about the idea of a device climbing upright vertically thanks to a rotating screw, then the oldest written mention of such a thing is more than 1600 years. He was a small children's toy in the form of a wand with a screw on the end, which was clamped between the palms, gave a spin and released, after which it briefly soared upwards. No practical application of this invention was then found, and it was forgotten for a long time.
Leonardo da Vinci
Although the name of the greatest genius of the Renaissance is notappears among those who are called when answering the question of who invented the helicopter, on one of the drawings made by his hand in 1475, there is an aircraft with a huge screw. Leonardo assumed that such a mechanism would have to fly vertically upward if his propeller was set in motion using the muscular strength of the pilot.
After 270 years, a mechanism that can be stretchedcalled prototype mini-helicopter, was invented in Russia. Its author was Mikhail Lomonosov, who decided to create an apparatus capable of lifting thermometers and other instruments needed for meteorological research to a greater height. It is known that a model was even made, launched from a spring mechanism, but its tests were not successful. Whatever it was, although there is no reason to believe that the first to invent the helicopter was M. Lomonosov, the principle of extinguishing the reactive torque on rotorcrafts invented by him is still used today and is considered a universally recognized classic.
First vertical flight
In 1860 in France, G. Pontoon d'Amecour created an airplane, which had two coaxial screws and was equipped with a steam engine. His tests were not successful, and the machine was never able to make a vertical lift, as its inventor had hoped.
The situation has changed with the advent of gasolineengines that were more powerful and weighed less than steam. September 29, 1907 was the first ever vertical flight. It was made by the Gyroplane unmanned vehicle, built by Louis and Jacques Breguet, with the theoretical support of Professor S. Richet. It lasted less than a minute. At the same time, the machine was able to tear itself away from the ground only by 50 cm. Despite the success, most experts believe that when answering the question about who invented the helicopter, it is impossible to name the creators of Gyroplane, since his flight was not controllable, and the device itself the moment of recovery was on the leash.
First manned flight
In 1907 the Frenchman Paul Cornu became the first whoinvented a helicopter that lifted its creator into the air. The machine was in flight for only 2 seconds and reached a height of 50 cm. At the same time, Cornu tried to control the device, but it can not be said that he succeeded.
Further history of the invention of the helicopter
For several years the designers andengineers could not solve the problem of managing such aircraft. The turning point was in 1911, when BN Yuryev became the one who invented the helicopter with the steering screw. The mechanism of the latter is used in the construction of aircraft to this day.
In 1922, Professor G. Botezat, who emigrated from Russia to the United States after the revolution, built the world's first steadily controlled helicopter, commissioned by the US Army. However, having risen in the air to a height of 5 m, he was able to stay in flight for only a few minutes.
Advances in the field of helicopter industry
In subsequent years, several records were set for the duration and range of flights. Among them we can mention:
- the record of the Argentine Raul Pateras Pescara, who overcame a distance of 736 m in a helicopter of his own design;
- the longest at that time (1924) flight lasting 7 minutes 40 seconds, committed by the Frenchman E. Emisenom;
- the record of the Italian helicopter D'Ascanio, who overcame a distance of over 1 km in 1930;
- the speed record (100 km / h), established in 1935 by the Gyroplane.
Who invented the first helicopter in the world?
It is believed that in response to this questionto name the name of the scientist-aircraft designer Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky. Long before the invention of his main creation - the world's first serial helicopter - he created the most advanced at that time 4-engine aircraft "Russian Knight". In addition, he also holds the first place in the design of transatlantic hydroplanes.
Back in 1931 Sikorsky patented the projectaircraft, the design of which is fundamentally little different from the models of the helicopter used today. In particular, he suggested using 2 propellers: the main one - on the roof and the auxiliary one - on the tail.
The first experimental helicopter Sikorsky -VS-300, managed by himself, climbed into the sky in September 1939. It was a steel pipe of large diameter with an open cockpit for the pilot. The aircraft had a capacity of 65 liters. from. and was equipped with a Lycoming engine rotating a 3-blade main rotor.
Further success of Sikorsky
In mid-spring 1941 the aircraft designerarranged a presentation of the world's first amphibious helicopter on a float chassis, which is a modification of the already famous at that time aircraft VS-300. The rotorcraft took off from the surface of the water and landed successfully on land. The duration of his flight was 1 hour 35 minutes, and the speed reached 100 km per hour.
Subsequently, the aircraft designer created helicopters 18types, which began to be produced serially. In addition, he designed turbine models, amphibians with retractable landing gear, as well as so-called flying cranes. On helicopters created by Sikorsky, trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific flights with refueling in the air were carried out. Egypt machines were used for a variety of purposes. His career before retiring Sikorski completed the creation of an S-58 helicopter, rightly considered the best helicopter of the 1st generation.
Now you know why it is generally accepted thatIgor Sikorsky invented the first helicopter. At the same time, it is impossible to belittle the merits of other engineers and designers who devoted many years of their life to the creation and improvement of rotorcraft.