Classification, types and types of climatic precipitation. Climate and types of precipitation
Types of climatic precipitation must be considered inseparable from the notion of "weather". It is these elements that are fundamental, if we consider the conditions of a particular region.
The term "weather" means a stateatmosphere in a particular place. The formation of the type of climate, its permanence depends on many factors that have their own patterns of manifestation. The same conditions can not be observed on separate sites. Types of climatic precipitation are different on all continents of the globe.
The climate can be influenced by such factors as solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, air humidity and temperature, precipitation, wind direction and strength, cloudiness, and relief.
The long-term regime of weather is the climate. A significant impact on it has the amount of solar heat entering the surface of the Earth. This indicator depends on the height of the Sun at noon-geographical latitude. The greatest amount of solar heat enters the equator, this value decreases to the poles.
Also, the most important factor influencing the weather is the mutual location of land and sea, which allows us to identify the marine and continental types of climate.
The marine (oceanic) climate is typical foroceans, islands and coastal parts of the continents. This type is characterized by small annual diurnal fluctuations in air temperatures and a significant amount of precipitation.
The continental climate characterizes the continental zones. The indicator of the continent's continentality depends on the average annual variations in air temperature.
Another factor that affects weather conditions,can be called sea currents. This dependence is manifested in a change in the temperature of the air masses. There are also climatic precipitations near the ocean.
It is the air temperature - the next factor,whose influence on weather and climate is difficult to overestimate. Changes in thermal conditions create the dynamics of air pressure indicators, forming zones of high and low atmospheric pressure. These zones carry air masses. The different nature of the air masses encountered forms an atmospheric front, which is characterized by cloudiness, precipitation, an increase in wind speed and a change in temperature.
The complex interaction of the above-mentioned factors forms types of weather conditions in certain territories.
There are such types of climate: equatorial, tropical monsoon, tropical dry, Mediterranean, subtropical dry, temperate marine, temperate continental, temperate monsoon, subarctic, Arctic or Antarctic.
Types of climate. Brief description of all types of climate
The equatorial type is characterized by an average annualtemperature within + 26 ° C, a large amount of precipitation during the year, the predominance of warm and humid air masses and is common in the equatorial regions of Africa, South America and Oceania.
Types of precipitation are directly dependent on the region. Below we will look at the types of climate that are characteristic of the tropical environment.
Types of tropical climate
The weather around the world is quite diverse. The tropical monsoon type of climate has the following characteristics: the temperature in January is +20 ° C, in July - + 30 ° C, 2000 mm atmospheric precipitation, monsoons predominate. Distributed in the territory of South and South-East Asia, West and Central Africa, Northern Australia.
The tropical dry climate is peculiarthe air temperature in January is + 12 ° C, in July - + 35 ° C, insignificant precipitation is within 200 mm, the trade winds predominate. Distributed in North Africa, Central Australia.
Mediterranean type of climate can becharacterized by the following indicators: temperature in January + 7 ° C, in July + 22 ° C; 200 mm of precipitation, in summer, at high atmospheric pressure, anticyclones prevail, in winter - cyclones. The Mediterranean climate is widespread in the Mediterranean, South Africa, Southwest Australia, Western California.
Temperatures of subtropical dryclimate range from 0 ° C in January to + 40 ° C in July, with this type of climate the precipitation does not exceed 120 mm, in the atmosphere, dry continental air masses predominate. The territory of distribution of this type of weather conditions is the internal parts of the continents.
Moderate marine climate is characterized by suchtemperature indicators: from +2 ° C to + 17 ° C, precipitation at the level of 1000 mm, it is characterized by western winds. It is distributed in the western parts of Eurasia and North America.
Moderate continental climate showsa significant difference in seasonal temperatures: -15˚С - +20˚С, atmospheric precipitation within 400 mm, western winds and prevalence on the inner parts of continents.
Moderate monsoon shows sharp temperature fluctuations from -20˚С in January to + 23˚С in July, precipitation at the level of 560 mm, the presence of monsoons and prevalence in the east of Eurasia.
Under the subarctic climate type, temperatures range from -25 ° C to + 8 ° C, precipitation is 200 mm, in the atmosphere, monsoons predominate, the territory is Northern Eurasia and America.
The Arctic (Antarctic) type, in whichthere are low temperatures - -40 ° C - 0 ° C, minor precipitation - 100 mm, anticyclones, - is widespread in the continental zone of Australia and the Arctic Ocean.
The types we have considered prevailing onvast territories, defined as macroclimate. In addition to these, meso- and microclimates are also studied, which relate to relatively small areas with stable weather conditions.
The most important criterion for determining the type of climate is the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of atmospheric precipitation falling on a given territory.
Atmospheric precipitation and their types. Weather and the concept of climate
The Earth's climate is heterogeneous, and not the least inThis is played by the quantitative and qualitative indicators of precipitation falling over the territory. The factors on which they depend determine the scheme. Types of precipitation depend on the following factors: physical form, place of formation, nature of deposition, place of origin.
Let's consider each of the factors in more detail.
Physical characteristics of atmospheric precipitation
Types of atmospheric precipitation are classified according to their physical state:
- Liquid, which can be attributed drizzle and rain.
- Solid - they include snow, grains, hail.
- Rain is a water drop. It is the most common type of precipitation, which falls out of cumulonimbus and rain-cloud clouds.
- Morossy called microscopic drops of moisture with a diameter of a hundredths of a millimeter, dropping out of stratus clouds or thick fog at plus temperatures.
- The predominant form of solid precipitation is snow, the types of which are considered to be snow and ice cereals, which fall out at low temperatures.
- Grad is another form of solid precipitation in the form of ice particles of 5-20 mm in size. This type of precipitation, despite its structure, falls in the warm season.
The influence of seasonality on the physical state of atmospheric precipitation
Depending on the season, atmospheric precipitationfall out in certain forms. For a warm period, the following types are characteristic: rain, drizzle, dew, hail. In the cold season, snow, croup, frost, frost, ice are possible.
Classification of precipitation depending on the place of formation
In the upper atmosphere, rain, drizzle, hail, croup, snow.
On the ground or close to the earth - dew, frost, drizzle, ice.
The nature of precipitation
According to the nature of precipitation, atmospheric precipitation can be divided into drizzle, storm and overburden. Their character depends on many factors.
Frozen precipitation is long and weakintensity, storm show a high intensity, but a short duration, complex ones have a one-ton intensity without sudden fluctuations.
The nature and amount of precipitation undoubtedly affecton the weather conditions of a certain area, which, in turn, affects the overall climate. In the tropics, for example, rain can be observed only a few months a year. The rest of the time bakes the sun.
The climate and types of climatic precipitation are indirect dependence on each other. Factors affecting the distribution of snow and rain are temperature, air mass movement, relief and sea currents.
The zone of the equatorial climate is characterized by the greatest amount of precipitation on Earth. This fact is due to high air temperatures and high humidity.
Divide into dry desert and wet tropical climate species. The world climate has average precipitation values that are within 500-5000 mm.
Monsoon type is characterized by a large amount of precipitation, which come from the ocean. The weather conditions here have their own periodicity.
The Arctic is poor in precipitation, which is explained by the presence of low atmospheric temperatures.
Based on the place of origin, all types of climatic precipitation can be divided into:
- convective, which prevail in areas with a hot climate, but are also possible in temperate climates;
- Frontal, formed when meeting two different temperature air masses, are common in temperate and cold types of climate.
Climate of the Earth, characteristics and types of climaticprecipitation - the basic concepts that we have considered. On this basis we can say that the Earth - it is a great system, each element of which is in direct or indirect dependence on others. This understanding of the issue governs the application of integrated approaches, when they consider the climate and types of precipitation as a sphere of interest in science. Only with a combined study of these factors can we find the right answers to questions of interest to scientists.
Atmospheric precipitation, atmosphere, weather and climate - all these concepts are closely interrelated. In the study, it is impossible to miss even one of the sections.