Secrets of the Oceans. Inhabitants of the underwater world
Boundless water spaces at all timesattracted and frightened a person at the same time. Brave explorers set out to travel in search of the unknown. Many secrets of the oceans remain unsolved even today. It is not for nothing that scientists can hear that the hydrosphere is less studied than the surface of a natural satellite of the Earth. In this there is some truth, because the degree of study of the waters of the world ocean does not exceed 5%.
Exploring the Oceans
The study of the sea depths began muchearlier than the exploration of outer space and distant galaxies. There were created devices capable of omitting a person to a considerable depth. Developed underwater photography technology and robotic systems. The area of the oceans and its depths are so great that many types of bathyscaphes were designed to study them.
After the first human flight inouter space in 1961, scientists have all the forces thrown on the study of the universe. The secrets of the oceans have gone to the background, because it seemed much harder to get to them. The programs that have been initiated to study the seas have been frozen or reduced.
The researchers received information onexistence of underwater rivers on the ocean floor. Different hydrocarbon compounds through the cracks in the earth's crust come out under the water column, mix with it and move. This phenomenon is designated by the term "cold seepage". However, the temperature of the gases is not lower than that of the surrounding water.
Submarine rivers are not the only interestingphenomenon. The area of the oceans is so great that many mysterious things lie beneath it. Seven underwater waterfalls were found on the seabed, exceeding the known analogues on land. Such a strange movement of water is caused by a number of reasons:
- different temperature of water masses;
- distinguishing salinity;
- the presence of a complex topography of the bottom surface.
The combination of all these factors causes the movement of water with a greater density, which rushes downward.
Dairy seas and false bottom
Luminous in the darkness of the ocean space called"Milk seas". Researchers repeatedly recorded similar phenomena on photographic film. There are many hypotheses that try to explain their essence, but nobody can name the exact cause of the glow of the waters. According to one of them, "milk sea" is a huge accumulation of luminescent microorganisms. And some fish of the ocean also possess the property of glow in the dark.
The false bottom is another mysterious phenomenon, withwhich science sometimes encounters. The first mention of it dates back to 1942, when scientists with the help of echolocators noticed an unusual layer reflecting acoustic signals at a depth of 4 hundred meters. Further studies have established that this layer rises at night to the surface of the water, and at sunrise re-enters. Guesses of scientists have been confirmed, this phenomenon was created by animals of the ocean - squid. They are uncomfortable with sunlight and from it they hide in great depths. Dense clusters of these organisms do not let out sound waves.
Acoustic equipment also recordsincomprehensible sound waves emanating from the seabed. They were discovered in the early 90s of the 20th century. After a while, the devices stopped recording this phenomenon. Once again, the sounds appeared ten years later, becoming louder and more diverse. Scientists can not indicate their source and cause of occurrence.
There are other mysteries of the oceans that causepanic fear of the common man. In certain places, air and sea vessels disappear without a trace, together with people, huge whirlpools appear and shining circles are visible. Many have heard of the mysterious Bermuda Triangle, in which all of the listed phenomena are observed. The area of the zone is about 1 million km2. The rumor about this mysterious area went afterthe disappearance of military aircraft in 1945. They managed to convey information that they had lost their orientation in space. Dozens of such cases have occurred in the past.
These phenomena were investigated, differenttheories that try to explain them. Many of them are pseudoscientific and can not be taken seriously. One of the most reliable was voiced by D. Monaghan. He saw the cause in clusters of hydrocarbon and other gases in the solid state near the ocean floor. The occurring tectonic processes had an impact on them. As a result, the substances passed into a gaseous state and collected at the surface of the water.
The ships went to the bottom, because the density of watersignificantly decreased. Aircraft lost orientation under the influence of gases. The movement of hydrocarbons in the water creates an infrasound that causes a person a state of panic. Such fear could force the team in full force to leave the ship hastily. This is not the only mysterious zone in the vast water expanses. What other secrets of the oceans are to be solved by scientists, it remains only to guess.
Under the water live a wide variety of organisms,which have an unusual appearance. Some of them are poisonous, others are harmless. Incredible variety of sizes and shapes, as well as unusual adaptations with which the animals of the ocean disguise or hunt. Among the most enigmatic is the huge octopus of 13 m in length. This inhabitant of the underwater world got into the camera lens recently. According to some information, its size can be much larger, up to 18 m. Equal in strength are only sperm whales and polar sharks.
Sea depths have many invertebratesinhabitants and microorganisms, which literally dotted the bottom. Food for them is the organic, which is poured on them from above. The problems of the ocean are solved by its inhabitants, for example, the processing of remains of living organisms. Exploring the features of the oceans, scientists have discovered a bacterium that lives deep beneath its bottom. It lives under a three-hundred-meter-long sedimentary layer for many millions of years.
Corals living at depths of up to 6 km - veryan interesting sight. Under this layer of water, the temperature does not rise above + 2ºC. Their splendor is not inferior to those that we see in the shallow waters of the tropical seas. The life of these organisms proceeds slowly, and the range is very large.
To understand the extent of their distribution, onlyafter the application of trawls. The fish of the ocean began to be caught in such a barbarous method, which destroys the bottom eco-structure. Near Norway the largest place of their settlement was discovered. It has an area of more than 100 km2.
One of the ecosystems was discovered by scientists ina region of hot underwater springs where boiling water breaks out from under the earth's crust into the ocean. The territory is simply teeming with a variety of invertebrates and microorganisms. Among them there are also different types of fish. Bacteria that can live in streams of water with a temperature of 121ºC have been found.
The world ocean covers 70% of the surface of our planet. Scientists have discovered many interesting and mysterious phenomena in its thickness. However, the main secrets of the oceans are yet to be solved.