What is a singularity? Point of singularity. Singularity of a black hole
To date, the question of what issingularity, excites not only people who are interested in science, but also the best scientists of the world. This term is found in mathematics, physics, astronomy, cosmology and other exact sciences. His interpretation varies a little, but the principle remains the same. Therefore, now we consider successively what is a singularity from different points of view, and find out what is so interesting for researchers this mysterious phenomenon.
General interpretation of the term
Before we begin to delve into secretsUniverse, let us turn to the history of the universe. The most correct version of the world at the present moment is the theory of the Big Bang. At the time of the birth of all that surrounds us, there was only one single point of singularity. Its dimensions are not known exactly, but scientists often compare it to a pea for understanding. In this case, do not think that this mini-ball could be kept in his hand. Its mass was equal to the mass of all the stars and galaxies that are in space today. Moreover, the temperature of this pea was just off scale, and the gravitational force in it was higher than that of the existing black holes. In other words, the point of singularity is a unit of space-time, in which all matter filling up our Universe consisted.
How did the time come about?
It is worth mentioning that under the term"Matter" means not only cosmic space, consisting of billions of astronomical units, but also all time intervals. Yes, it is difficult to imagine, but in order to understand what a singularity is, you need to imagine time as a spatial dimension in which you can move forward or backward. All this is inextricably linked with the curvature of space, which we will discuss below. Scientists also do not know how long this pea existed by terrestrial measures. Paradoxically, in such a compressed state in any dimension, infinity is zero. Later the singularity point began to grow, the temperature in it fell, the particles repelled from each other. So time separated from other dimensions and ceased to be a spatial unit. Because today it can go only forward.
As you know, the science of cosmology deals withstudying the evolution of the universe. Here we consider all the so-called epochs that followed the Big Bang. It was in accordance with this theory that scientists hypothesized that the universe originated from a singularity. In this case, the period of existence of the latter can not be established. Proceeding from this, two most believable versions are still being carefully studied. The first is that our world is static. A big explosion occurred at a certain moment, when all the particles, in a state of infinite compression, abruptly pushed away from each other. In addition, the singularity of the universe before the explosion was characterized by the presence of matter and antimatter. Today, scientists have not found a single antiparticle. The second version is based on the fact that the Big Bang is a real cosmos. It is established that galaxies are constantly moving away from each other, therefore, the process of expanding the world continues to this day.
Singularity in cosmology
In the evolution of the cosmos, strange as it may seem, there is no placeacting on the Earth physical formulas and laws. This phenomenon is visually demonstrated to us by the cosmological singularity. Of course, in practice it is impossible to find out in what state the matter was at the moment of the origin of the world, but theoretically the scientists calculated the paradoxical regularities. The first is the curvature of space-time. This means that it is impossible to plot an even geodetic line or angle in the singularity sphere. The second is, as we have already said, a very different time. Here you can get to any point on a time interval. Cosmological singularity, according to scientists, is the starting point, which is called the Big Bang. During this period, the density and temperature of the substance approached the infinite. At the same time, the measure of chaos tended to zero, multiplying by itself the two previous units. From the point of view of terrestrial physics, temperature and density can not simultaneously endure in an infinite state. And this is only one of many paradoxes that scientists can not solve.
Old and new theory
Many years ago, Albert Einstein gave the worldthe famous theory of relativity, which is now called the theory of gravity. Thanks to it, we today describe all the phenomena in space and time that surround us. In accordance with the theory, physical objects can not have a singularity. That is, in practice, no matter or matter can not have mass, density or temperature equal to infinity. But mathematics is known as a theoretical science, therefore in it there is a place for functions with infinite meanings. Applying one area of knowledge to another, we get an approximate calculation of what could happen at the time of the Big Bang. This, as already mentioned, points with infinite physical quantities. This phenomenon is called physical or cosmic singularity. But its laws are incomparable with the theory of relativity. A new theory of quantum gravity can explain this phenomenon. This is a branch of physics, where the behavior of light, its properties and significance in the universe are studied. The theory itself does not yet exist, but there are certain calculations and assumptions that can become its basis.
Unraveling the mysteries of gravity
In astrophysics there is such a thing asrunaway speed. It is used to determine the degree of acceleration with which a certain object can resist gravitational forces. For example, a rocket taking into account its mass should move at a speed of about 12 km / s to leave the atmosphere of the Earth. But if our planet had a diameter of not 12,742 kilometers, but one centimeter, then to overcome the field of attraction it would be necessary to move at a speed greater than the speed of light. In this case, the Earth would be surrounded not by the usual gravitational force, but by the gravitational singularity. Of course, all this is a theory, since if our planet takes such dimensions, it will turn into a black hole. But such experience makes it possible to understand what the significance of gravity in the universe is.
What determines the force of gravity?
The closer the atoms are to each other, themore dense substance. If the molecules somehow interact with each other, then the process of heating takes place, therefore, the temperature of this substance rises. Under terrestrial conditions, such processes occur within certain limits, therefore we have long invented formulas that allow us to calculate the behavior of any chemical element. All because the force of gravity does not allow particles to approach less than a certain distance, and move away more than a specific amount. In outer space, where there are wastelands between galaxies, the space is particularly discharged, this is called a vacuum. There is no gravity in principle, because a small amount of matter is in chaos. Near very dense objects (giant blue stars, quasars, and also black holes), the force of attraction rises to unreal values for us, earthlings. The particles are located so close to each other that a phenomenon called "gravitational singularity" is formed. This is the very basis that affects the distortion of space and the degree of curvature.
Gravitation and Matter Behavior
In the region of singularity matter is not sucked. Only cosmic wind and microscopic particles are attracted there. But a person can, in theory, voluntarily go to such areas. They are located in quasars and black holes and, alas, for living beings are deadly from the point of view of biology. Getting into the area of great tidal force, the body will begin to stretch both along and across. As a result, the outlines of a person will envelop the sphere and will rotate in it. Theoretically, if the eyes still see and transmit a signal to the brain, a person will simultaneously be able to see all of his body parts, including the face that will rotate in front of him, exceeding the speed of light. It is clear that in this form the human body can not exist, but this is true for terrestrial physics. However, this example gives us an opportunity to imagine what a singularity is from a practical point of view. It would be interesting to assume that as a biological species we will be able to accept these new physical laws and exist in such forms, forming new worlds for ourselves.
About what time is, you can argue forever. Today it is defined as the process of passing physiological, physical and mental processes for living organisms and the matter of our world. But the properties of time, its hidden possibilities have not been studied. We perceive it as something subjective, and it can be carefully monitored, remembering its past years. When we lived the first year of life, this segment for us was equal to 100 percent. He was the only thing we have, all life and experience. On his second birthday, one year has already become 50 percent, the third - only the third. By the age of 80, one year was already only 1/80 part of life and nothing really mattered. It happened because during the first year everything that we saw was new. In the future, we came across more and more familiar things and phenomena. Because it seemed that the childhood lasts incredibly long, and mature years fly by instant. This is a clear example of how the perception of one person distorts the flow of time. And what will happen if you look at this term from an astronomical point of view?
Time at the beginning of time
It was a small digression, which gavethe opportunity to understand all that we see. Being locked in the framework of physics and, moreover, of our own perception, it is difficult for us to imagine that the world was and can be quite different. So, the singularity of time had the same place in cosmology, as well as the singularity of space. Now to overcome a segment of 1 kilometer at a speed of 5 km / h will take 0.2 hours. To fly from the Earth to Saturn, it is necessary to spend several years. But what about time, if all the distance that exists in the world is equal to 1 centimeter? Multiplying such insignificant parameters by an infinitely large density and mass, we get the curvature of space-time. This means that at the time when the universe was singular, everything that we see now could happen. The events may have been mixed, incredibly distorted and correlated. Simply put, any material object could look like in the past of the Earth or another planet, and in its future.
Technology and entry into a new era
There is also the so-called singularity theory,according to which our planet will soon turn into a large biotechnical intelligence. According to the researchers, by the middle of the 21st century a computer will be created, the capabilities of which will surpass the capabilities of the brain. Artificial intelligence, naturally, will prevail over less developed beings. At that moment a technological singularity will come. This name was invented because it is not known how such a progressive leap in science will end and whether mankind will survive.
Singularity of the black hole, from which,actually, and this cosmic object is composed, is one of the greatest mysteries of the world. The wormhole itself does not really look like a pit with a funnel and a narrow tunnel, but as a sphere formed by a giant force of gravity. We have already mentioned the black holes above, defining them as deadly objects in the universe. The strength of their compression is incredibly great, because the horizon of events warps space and time stops. The singularity of a black hole is comparable to the theory of the Big Bang. It has not been thoroughly studied, but it is believed that the compression force inside the wormhole is the same as at the time of the birth of the world. That's why there is a theory that black holes are the evolution of new Universes that exist in parallel with ours.
An appendix explaining a part of the theory
In general terms, the theory of the point of no return andinfinite density makes it possible to understand the game "Singularity". The passage of a mission involves the movement in space and time, where the two concepts are one. The hero moves between 1950 and 2010, correcting the mistakes of Soviet scientists and saving modern convicts on an island surrounded by radiation. If you dive into this world, you can gradually understand what time in the spatial dimension means.
The study of all the secrets of the cosmos, which concerngravity, makes it possible to understand that the theory of relativity restricts us to the utmost. Of course, this is an incredible find for terrestrial conditions, but if it is a question of studying other spaces, then all stereotypes should be discarded. Such a concept as "singularity" overturns the perception of sound, light pulses, curvature of space and the length of time. But it is still encountered only in mathematical theory, and in physical practice does not find an explanation. The singularity of the black hole is studied in detail, but it is believed that this region, although compressed to infinity, is not the most collapsed point of the universe.