Degrees of comparison of adjectives in English - it's easy
Degrees of comparison of adjectives in Englishlanguage is one of the most accessible grammatical topics. Most of those who study this discipline quickly master the forms of adjectives and the areas of their use. This is due to the fact that it is in this topic that you can draw a clear analogy with the Russian language.
So, there are three degrees of comparison of adjectives in the English language, from which it is worth paying attention to only two.
1. Positive: "this orange is large." In fact, it is a neutral form of the adjective. About the comparison of speech is not.
2. Comparative: "this orange is larger than ordinary oranges."
3. Excellent: "this is the largest dog in the world."
Thus, we have three forms of the adjective: large, larger, largest.
Very many adjectives in Russian canhave two lexical forms to express the same degree of comparison. For example, "beautiful" and "most beautiful". Their meaning does not differ. It's about the same thing: an object is so beautiful that it does not have competitors.
However, in English such a dualityalmost not observed. Each adjective has only one form for expressing one degree of comparison. Although there are several words that have two forms, however, the meaning of the words in such cases differs quite clearly: far, near, old, late.
For example: far (far) - farer (more remote) - farest (most remote) - are used when it comes to distance.
But: far - further - furthest (the most distant) - these forms are used if we say "further", implying some sequence, not distance.
Let us consider in more detail the degreesadjectives in English. Exercises that help to master them are very simple: try to decline any words first, then make proposals independently with them.
So, for the formation of a power comparison in English, two options are used:
1. The endings -er, -est receive:
- monosyllabic, that is, short, adjectives consisting of one syllable: high tower - higher tower - highest tower;
- disyllabic adjectives with the ending -y (this ending is transformed into -i). Examples: busy woman (busy woman) - busier woman (busier woman) - busiest woman (most busy woman):
- disyllabic adjectives with the ending -ow. Examples: narrow river (narrow river) - narrower river (narrower river) - narrowest river (narrowest river);
- disyllabic adjectives with the ending -le. Examples: gentle reader (understanding reader) - gentler reader (more understanding reader) - gentlest reader (the most understanding reader);
- disyllabic adjectives with the ending -er. Examples: tender heart (tender heart) - tenderer heart (tender heart) - tenderest heart (the most tender heart);
- adjectives from two syllables with an accent on the second. Examples: polite boy (polite boy) - politer boy (more polite boy) - politest boy (the most polite boy);
- three-syllable adjectives with prefix un-. Examples: unclear question (unclear question) - unclearer question (unclear question) - unclearest question (the most unclear question).
2.The degrees of comparison of adjectives in the English language are formed with the additional words more, more and opposite in value less and less. According to this scheme, forms are formed:
- all disyllabic adjectives, except those,which are included in the rule above. For example: boring - boring. It has two syllables, but the first syllable is stressed. Hence: boring lecture (boring lecture) - more boring lecture (more boring lecture) - most boring lecture (the most boring or boring lecture);
- all polysyllabic adjectives. For example: independent people (independent people) - more independent people (more independent people) - the most independent people (the most independent people).
There are exceptions. These are the following words: good, bad, many, many, little. At them at formation of degrees of comparison the root changes.
Comparative degree of comparison of adjectives in English:
This cheese is better than that. - This cheese is better than that.
The red dress is worse than the blue one. - The red dress is worse than the blue one.
The mouse is smaller than a cat. - A mouse is smaller than a cat.
He was even less attractive than a monkey. - He was less attractive than a monkey.
An excellent degree of comparison of adjectives:
The best day. - The best day.
The most horribly dressed celebrities are Worst dressed celebrities.
This is the smallest kitten in the world. - This is the smallest kitten in the world.
She was the most unattractive girl in school - She was the least attractive girl in the school.
This is the basic information you need to know aboutcomparative forms of adjectives in English. Having learned the principles of declension, pay attention to such nuances as doubling the last consonant in adjectives, the disappearance of a vowel, and increasing the comparison with the word "much".