Methods of political science
In the course of the historical formation of political thought, the basic methods of research in political science gradually developed. This historical development can be divided into several periods.
The time interval until the 19th century is considered a classical period. During this period, such methods of political science as moral-axiological, logical-philosophical and deductive were introduced.
The period from the 19th century to 20 researchers is defined as the institutional period. At this time, the normative-institutional and historical-comparative methods of political science become the first place.
From the 20s to the 70s of the 20th century, the behavioristic period lasted. At this stage, mainly quantitative methods of political science were introduced.
In the last third of the 20th century, a postbihevirovist period came. At this stage, traditional and new methods of political science are combined.
Since the days of Aristotle and Plato it is knownComparative (comparative) means of analysis and evaluation of the theory. It is based on the comparison of two (or more) political objects. Using this tool, it becomes possible to establish common features of objects or to determine their differences. The application of comparative political analysis makes it possible to develop a system of political knowledge that can be verified, to assess institutions, experience, behavior and procedures on the basis of cause-effect relationships. In addition, this tool allows you to predict the consequences, trends and events.
The sociological method of political science isa set of methods and means of certain sociological research. These studies are aimed at collecting and processing the facts of political life taking place at the moment. The means of sociological research should include questionnaires, surveys, statistical analyzes, experiments, mathematical modeling. Based on the collected rich factual material, it becomes possible to study processes and phenomena.
Anthropological method, closely related tohuman nature, is quite common in analyzing the institutions of power, mechanisms, means of social control that existed primarily in pre-industrial society. This method can also be used in assessing the problems of transformation and adaptation of traditional control tools in the transition from classical systems to modern ones.
The study of subjective mechanisms of behavior, featurescharacter, individual qualities, typical means of logical motivation in politics is based on the psychological method of political science. It is based on the outstanding ideas of Seneca, Aristotle, Rousseau, Machiavelli and other thinkers. Among the sources of the modern psychological method, the ideas of psychoanalysis are of great importance.
In a way, a revolution in the science of politicsmade a behavioral method that was formed as an alternative to the legal one. Behavioral way of analysis and evaluation is based on some kind of "individualization". The followers of this method view politics as an independent social phenomenon, the type of social behavior of groups (or individuals), characterized by motivations and attitudes that have a close relationship with government and power.
Application of expert assessments as a method of analysisit is advisable to solve various non-formalizable tasks. They include the development of a management decision, the forecast of political development, the assessment of the situation.
To develop a cybernetic process modela communicative method is used. In this case, political interactions are explored as informational flows. The main thing is the decision and reaction to it.
The modeling method involves the study of political phenomena and processes through the development and study of models. It should be noted that today this is the most promising way.