Balance method in economic analysisis considered the most common and traditional. It is realized through a special system. When implementing the planning for this method, a special table is drawn up - a balance sheet. It relates the availability of resources and the sources of their receipt with the volumes and directions of their application. The economic role of balances is very diverse. They are endowed with various functions, are developed to solve many problems, are applied in different branches of economic activity. They are also used in statistics, forecasting, accounting and other areas.
Balance method of planning and forecastingallows you to connect the needs and resources within the social production as a whole. Together with this, the development of adjacent industries and industries, the proportionality and interaction of all components of the national economy are coordinated. The balance method allows to detect unused reserves, to reveal disproportions. In addition, it can be used to identify and justify new proportions. The balances used in forecasting and planning are divided into three groups: value, material and labor.
Material relationships characterizeuse and production of certain types of materials, raw materials (metal, fuel, energy and other), equipment, production facilities, fixed assets and so on. Their development is carried out in physical units, value and conditionally-natural expression. Material balances include two parts. The first - resource - reflects the indicators by which the characteristics of resources are carried out in accordance with all sources of income. The second part - distribution - reflects the direction of use. Both parts must be equal.
The balance method, which characterizes the presence,application and distribution of fuel, is developed both in recalculation on conditional fuel, and in natural calculation. The resource part reflects the types and groups of raw materials (materials). The distributive part of the fuel and energy balance reflects the consumption of energy and fuel in accordance with the target areas of their application. Thus, the overall size and structure of energy consumption and production in the country as a whole are determined, and the directions of their application are identified.
The cost-based balance method is used toreflect the formation of income taking into account all sources of their receipt and distribution in accordance with the directions of use. This shows the movement of financial resources, proportions, economic ties, as well as the process of using and generating state revenues, enterprises and the population through value expression. The central place in this system is assigned to the balance of payments. He describes the foreign economic operations of the state for a specific period. For its compilation a special scheme was developed, which is standardized for all countries.
The balance method, which reflects the reproductionlabor force, is used when identifying the availability of labor resources and the need for them in accordance with the branches, forms of ownership, spheres of national economy. Thus, it becomes possible to study the composition of labor resources taking into account social groups, as well as the identification of labor reserves. The central place in the structure is given to the consolidated balance of labor resources. It includes two parts.
The first part reflects the numerical strength andavailability of labor resources, in the second - the direction of their application in accordance with the spheres and branches of the national economy, types of employment, social groups and forms of ownership.