Qualitative adjectives in Russian
All adjectives are characterized by a set oflexical and grammatical features. On this basis, they can be divided into two major categories. These are qualitative and relative adjectives. They can be distinguished by several parameters: by form and value, by morpheme composition, if possible, to form new words, and by the way in which syntactic relations they enter with other members of the sentence or phrase.
Qualitative adjectives directlycalled those properties and qualities of the subject, which are perceived by all senses, and those that give objects of evaluation, qualify them. They also describe the physical condition of animals and people.
Qualitative adjectives are non-productiveand derivatives. In the first case the sign is expressed already by the semantics of the root itself (evil, deaf, white, stupid, blue). Qualitative names of adjectival derivatives, formed in a suffix way, express the properties of the object with the help of this morpheme: tempting, talkative, hairy. Moreover, the semantics of the suffix always has an individual character, its relation to the generating basis is differentiated. Qualitative adjectives can also be created in addition. Then they include the motivating basis: long-armed, light-blue.
There is also a reverse process, when fromqualitative adjectives, other parts of speech are formed, for example, qualitative adverbs and nouns referring to an abstract category with the value of an appraisal of something: beauty, blueness, tenderness; well, humanely, silly.
This type of adjective can be used in both full and short form, has several degrees of comparison.
Qualitative adjectives are able to make such phrases that express the intensity of a sign: very quiet, frighteningly dark, extremely good.
And finally: these adjectives have the opposite meaning, that is, the antonyms. For example, clean - dirty, good - evil, quiet - loud.
All the signs listed above are not worth itconsider absolute, because it is impossible to attribute them in a complex to each separately taken adjective from the category of qualitative ones. But they can be taken as a basis to determine the lexico-grammatical type of a given part of speech. After all, these signs are constantly found in qualitative adjectives, only in different volumes. Even if one of the properties mentioned above is taken into account, it will still help determine the grade of the adjective. For example, the adjective "married" can not be regarded as relative only one feature - the presence of a short form.
Distinguish this category of adjectives fromqualitative allows a number of features. Thus, relative adjectives are not able to form new words related to other parts of speech. This is possible only in the case of their transition to qualitative: a superficial study - to study superficially.
In addition to form, they are not formed from relative adjectives and the degree of comparison.
Also, they do not build syntactic relations that express the intensity of a feature.
The value of qualitative adjectives is fairly stable. Only in terms of terms they acquire partial relativity. For example, light industry, ferrous metallurgy, sonorous consonant.
A relative adjective, on the contrary, witheasily lose their relativity and acquire shades of qualitative significance. For example, copper wire and copper color, gold earrings and golden character.
And in general, the relative adjective is used instead of qualitative so often that this property can be considered its potential opportunity.