Aluminum and its alloys: all about this metal

To date, practical applications have foundalmost all known metals and their alloys. Each of them has its own specific features, which determine the scope of their use in various industries. The most common are iron and all kinds of compounds based on it, as well as aluminum and its alloys. This can be explained, first of all, by large natural reserves, as well as by excellent chemical, physical and mechanical characteristics.

A bit of history

According to the ancient legend described in the treatise"Natural History" by Guy Pliny the Elder, compiled around AD 77, one day an unknown master came to the emperor of Rome Tiberius and gave him a present in the form of a bowl of silvery and very light metal. When Tiberius asked him what he had made her from, he replied that he was made of clay. Surprised, the emperor ordered to kill an innocent artisan and destroy his workshop, so that this invention did not lead to the depreciation of the metals of the Roman treasury. It is a pity that at that time he was unable to assess all prospects for the discovery, because aluminum and its alloys in the future made a real breakthrough.

Why aluminum and its alloys are so popular?

aluminum and its alloys
The content of aluminum in the earth's crust isabout 8.8%, and therefore he leads the list of the most common metals. Its advantages include low density (2.7 g / cm3), excellent corrosion resistance, manufacturability, good electrical and thermal conductivity, rather high strength characteristics. Aluminum and its alloys are widely used in aviation, shipbuilding, railway transport, automotive, construction, chemical and oil industries, etc. Aluminum alloys are characterized by ductility, ductility, high processing speed. All this gives an excellent opportunity to apply them in almost any kind of production.

Basic alloys based on aluminum

aluminum alloys
By combining aluminum with alloying additives, it is possibleachieve greater strength and improve the other properties of this metal. As additives, silicon, copper, manganese, zinc and magnesium are most often used. Let's consider the basic alloys.

Duralumin (duralumin, or simply duralumin)

The name of this compound is derived from the wordDuren - this is the name of the German city, in which, in 1911, began to produce this alloy on an industrial scale. It is obtained by adding copper (2.2 - 5.2%), magnesium (0.2-2.7%) and manganese (0.2-0.1%) to aluminum. After heat treatment, the metal becomes very strong (static strength reaches 450-500 MPa). In order to increase the anti-corrosion resistance, it is often clad with aluminum. They are used as a structural material in transport and aircraft engineering.

Magnolia

These are various alloys of aluminum with magnesium and otherelements (magnesium content - 1-13%). They are characterized by high plasticity, good weldability and corrosion resistance. Used for the manufacture of shaped castings, wires, sheets, rivets, etc.

Silumin

metals and their alloys
This compound is obtained by combining aluminum withsilicon (silicon content - 4-13%). Sometimes other additives are added to it: Be, Ti, Zn, Mg, Mn, Cu. This alloy is used for the production of parts of complex design, mainly in aircraft and automotive industry.

Aluminum and its alloys will serve for a long time onthe benefit of humanity. Proof of this new invention - foam aluminum or, as it is called, "metal foam rubber". Many experts believe that porous aluminum has excellent prospects.