Scientific method

The scientific method is a set of procedures aimed at establishing general provisions and evaluating the theories proposed in describing, explaining and predicting phenomena. It is used in various areas.

There is a certain classification of scientific methods. Specialists subdivide them into two main levels: the methods of theoretical and empirical cognition.

The scientific method of empirical cognition is applicable in the conditions of experience, where the main task is performed by the senses. This method includes:

  1. Observation is a purposeful study of an object using the functions of the sense organs, when the observer does not interfere with the phenomenon under study.
  2. An experiment is the study of an object in specially created and controlled artificial conditions.
  3. Comparison. This method involves identifying differences or similar features of objects or phenomena.
  4. Description of the results of the experiment, observation or experience. For fixing apply special notation systems (diagrams, tables, schemes and others).
  5. Measurement - the identification of a quantitative indicator of a particular quantity.

The theoretical scientific method involves the use of thinking as a tool in the study. In turn, this method of study is subdivided into formalization and an axiomatic method.

Formalization is a mappingKnowledge by means of symbols and signs (the formalized language). In this case, reasoning about phenomena and objects replaces operations with signs. This, in particular, is clearly reflected in symbolic logic or mathematics.

However, the scientific method is not always applicableformalization. So, for example, culturology or philosophy does not lend itself to symbolic representation. This method is appropriate in natural or technical sciences.

The axiomatic method is the derivation of knowledge from non-proving provisions (axioms).

General methods combine philosophical, theoretical and empirical cognition. These methods include:

  1. Analysis is a division of one's mind into the component parts of an object or phenomenon.
  2. Synthesis - the formation of parts of a single whole.
  3. Abstraction is the mental isolation of the most basic properties of an object or phenomenon.
  4. Idealization is a mental operation aimed at the formation of objects, objects, phenomena idealized and not existing in reality.
  5. Modeling is a study using substituents of phenomena or objects (models).

Modeling, in turn, is divided into subject (material) and mental (ideal).

It should be noted that modeling asThe research tool is used widely enough. Particularly relevant is its use in solving management problems. Often, in the face of complex problems in the absence of the possibility of carrying out experiments in real life, modeling becomes a necessary and indispensable tool. In situations that are difficult enough to use a simple cause and effect assessment, specially designed models are used.

Psychology in many of its spheres appliesscientific method. Here, as well as in other areas, the use of the derivation of hypotheses from theoretical positions is carried out, a systematic critical evaluation is carried out under controlled, objective, empirical research. As a result, certain conclusions are made, available for in-depth study, reproduction and analysis.

When investigating complex events, theirseparation into variables and relevant. Between them, in turn, using the scientific method, researchers establish and study relationships, subsequently develop and critically evaluate assumptions related to empirical results.