The method is .. Methodology, application of methods, modern methods
The method is a very broad concept, applicablepractically to every science and inseparably connected with research. Nevertheless, he has a very precise definition. The history of the development of methods and methodology is divided into two periods, as will be discussed in more detail in this article. In addition, problems of classification and evolution of methods will be touched upon.
Essentially, the word "method" has two full values.
First, the method is a method of theoreticalresearch or practical implementation. In this sense, it is perceived by scientists. For example, empirical (that is, based on experience) or deductive method (from general to particular). It is worth noting that these examples are methods of cognition, which is only one area of methodology.
Secondly, the method is the way to actin some specific way, the version of the action chosen by this or that person / organization, etc. For example, methods of management, control, manipulative methods.
It is important to note also the fact that both valuescorrelate with each other: thus, the definitions begin with the word "method", which is a very common synonym for the "method." Then comes clarification: what is it exactly? These are two important elements from which the method is created.
Methodology is a teaching about methods thatrepresents an integral system of principles of organization, as well as ways of constructing both theoretical and practical activities. In this definition lies the key to one general definition of the method.
That is, the method is that through which the activities are organized. But it is still accepted as a basis to take two demarcated definitions, presented just above, in the previous paragraph.
Tasks and features
The method must correspond with the reality, with those properties and laws that the reality carries in itself.
The need for the emergence of methods follows fromtasks of accumulation and transfer of social experience. The early stages of the development of culture already contained the rudiments of methodology. But only when it was clarified the need to formalize the rules and norms of activity, it began to develop in a conscious and purposeful manner.
Historical development of methodology as a science
The methodology has long been included in the contextnatural philosophical and logical representations. Moreover, it represented the philosophical foundations of scientific and cognitive activity. Consequently, the definition of a method as a method of cognition first arose.
From this point of view, different philosophers are differenttime in own way classified methods. For example, before the spread of German classical philosophy, only two types of methods were distinguished: rationalistic and empiric. But the limitations of these directions were later criticized. The nature of the methodology itself also remained unclear: from the mechanical to the dialectical. After analyzing the structure of the teaching, Kant singled out constitutive and regulative principles. Some categories were studied and represented by Hegel.
However, under the guise of philosophy, the methodology could not achieve specificity, remaining a set of points of view.
The Twentieth Century: Reforming the Notion of Methodology
In the twentieth century, the methodology began to encompass a specialized field of knowledge. In addition, she was given a specific direction: the internal movement, that is, the mechanisms and logic of knowledge.
Methodology began to correspond to differentiation.
There are the following types of methods:
- Universal, which have their own classification. Dialectical and metaphysical methods are known.
- General scientific, the classification of which is based on the levels of knowledge - empirical and theoretical.
- Private, or specific, attached toSpecific areas of science in which they are used or from which to occur. In other words, the basis for this type is the application of methods in various fields or the development of methods by these spheres. This species has the widest range of examples. So social methods are directly related to sociology and society, and psychological methods are directly based on the laws of psychology.
Methods and methods
The method differs from the methodology in the first placeless specific. The second is, so to speak, the ready algorithm, the instruction of actions. The same method can be applied in different cases, while the techniques are for the most part narrowly specialized and developed for specific circumstances.
Evolution of methods
Evolution of methods is easy to follow on the example of the Institute of Medicine, or rather, diagnostic studies.
Modern diagnostics are improved due to the progress and deepening of scientific knowledge. At present, such devices and devices as were not available at least fifty years ago are provided.
It can be said that modern methodsThe invention of mankind, like a computer, was extremely influenced. And not only as the implementation of some developments, but also for the analysis of data that helps to identify the logical connections that were not noticed before, to reform methods, to adjust them to the current realities of life.
A method is a universal means, a method,the most important element of any area. Methods progress together with scientific knowledge. The structuring of methodology in the twentieth century contributed to the development taking on an extensive character.