Complex adjectives. Examples of complex adjectives

A significant part of Russian spelling is occupied byrules of hyphens, separate and merged spelling of word forms. Complex adjectives, examples of spelling which will be given in the article, illustrate the rules of spelling of the Russian language.

Sophisticated adjectives

Complex word - what is it?

In the lexical arsenal of the Russian language there are simple words consisting of one root, one stem (blue, young, red, autumnth). If a word consists of several bases or parts of the bases, then it is considered complex. Complex adjectives, examples of which are given below in the tables, consist of two roots.

complex adjectives through the hyphen examples

Complex word: the ways of education

Complex words are formed in three main ways: addition, fusion, abbreviation.

Complex Words: Ways of Education
MethodDescriptionComplex nouns and compound adjectives: examples
AdditionMorphological way of word formation, in which a complex word is formed by merging the stem with a vowel (the connecting vowel O follows the solid consonants, the vowel E - behind the soft consonants).woolly, carnivorous, blood, long-jet
CombinationLexico-syntactic method: in a complex merges a whole combination of words without connecting vowels.two-story (of two floors), forty days (of forty days), a madman (crazy)
AbbreviationConditionally-phonetic way: a compound word (noun) is formed from combinations of words, but, unlike a fusion, only parts of the bases are connected: syllables, letters.department store, salary, KamAZ, NATO, EGE

Sophisticated adjectives: merged spelling

The spelling of complex adjectives obeys a number of spelling rules, illustrate their complex adjectives, examples of which are given in the tables below.

complex names adjective examples

In this case, complex adjectives can be written through a hyphen and together or be part of a word combination, where the adjective is not part of a complex word.

Spelling of complex adjectives
No.RuleSophisticated adjectives: examples
1When the compound name of the adjective is formed from the complex noun name, which is written together.oil pipeline - oil pipeline, steamer - steamship
2In the formation of a complex adjective from the subordinate combination of words, including the word combinations "noun + adjective", which call geographic objects.skiing - skiing, natural science - science, average - average per day; Balgorsky - Bald Mountains, berry - Yagodnaya Polyana
3If the name adjective denotes a scientific term or is a special word.scaly-winged, viviparous, mammals, milk canned, baked, geological prospecting
4If the first part of the compound word is as follows: high-, higher-, deep-, densely-, steep-, coarse-, light-, small-, small-, multi-, low-, lower-, sharp-, flat-, strong-, weak-, , thin, hard, heavy, narrow, wide-. If there are explanatory words with such elements, then the writing is separate.little studied (but: little studied by students), difficult to extract (but: difficult to exclude from the body), well-known (widely known abroad)
5If the first part of a compound word is general-, upper-, middle-, lower-, ancient-, early-, late-.Common, Middle Russian, Lower Volga, Old English, Early, Late Scythian

Sophisticated adjectives: hyphenation

A lot of adjectives are written semi-delimited. The rules for hyphenation and compound adjectives (examples) are given in the table below.

No.RuleSophisticated adjectives through a hyphen: examples
Through a hyphen
1When the compound name of the adjective is formed from the complex noun name, which is written through a hyphen.North-West - North-West, Social-Democratic - Social Democracy, Issyk-Kul - Issyk-Kul (but: pre-Sissikkul, as it is a prefix)
2If the adjective is formed from two proper names, for example, from two surnames or first and last names. The exception is the eastern names.Pushkin-Gogol, Lion-Tolstoy, Jules-Vernovsky (but: Dzhekichanskaya, Khoshiminsky)
3If an adjective is formed by merging several equal words (between them you can put an alliance and or but).convex-concave, apple-plum, Russian-Chinese, expressive-emotional
4If the adjective is formed by the fusion of several equal, but heterogeneous words.official-business, electronic-computing, comparative-historical
5If the first part of a compound word is military, popular, mass, educational, scientific.military-legal, popular-liberation, mass-sports, educational-methodical, scientific and technical
6If the adjective reflects a shade of color.gray-green, yellow-blue, deep-black
7Complex adjectival toponyms.West-Korean, North Ossetian, South-Urals

The phrase "adverb + adjective"

Complex words - adjectives, examples of which are given above, can be difficult to distinguish from similar phrases.

compound words adjective examples
So, moral and ethical is an adjective, and morally insoaked - the phrase, where the dialect can be asked the question: "In what respect? "

Spelling of complex adjectives: examples from literature

In works of fiction, complex adjectives are widely used.

spelling of complex adjectives
They allow you to accurately describe the object, select it from the environment; they introduce uniqueness into the text. For example, in the stories of IA Bunin, a number of individual epithets - complex adjectives: smoky-lilac distance, cloudy milk fog, matt-pale foliage, syzokrylye eagles, impudently beautiful woman, light golden maples, thin broad-shouldered doctor, metallic-sonorous screams and others.