Complex adjectives. Examples of complex adjectives
A significant part of Russian spelling is occupied byrules of hyphens, separate and merged spelling of word forms. Complex adjectives, examples of spelling which will be given in the article, illustrate the rules of spelling of the Russian language.
Complex word - what is it?
In the lexical arsenal of the Russian language there are simple words consisting of one root, one stem (blue, young, red, autumnth). If a word consists of several bases or parts of the bases, then it is considered complex. Complex adjectives, examples of which are given below in the tables, consist of two roots.
Complex word: the ways of education
Complex words are formed in three main ways: addition, fusion, abbreviation.
|Method||Description||Complex nouns and compound adjectives: examples|
|Addition||Morphological way of word formation, in which a complex word is formed by merging the stem with a vowel (the connecting vowel O follows the solid consonants, the vowel E - behind the soft consonants).||woolly, carnivorous, blood, long-jet|
|Combination||Lexico-syntactic method: in a complex merges a whole combination of words without connecting vowels.||two-story (of two floors), forty days (of forty days), a madman (crazy)|
|Abbreviation||Conditionally-phonetic way: a compound word (noun) is formed from combinations of words, but, unlike a fusion, only parts of the bases are connected: syllables, letters.||department store, salary, KamAZ, NATO, EGE|
Sophisticated adjectives: merged spelling
The spelling of complex adjectives obeys a number of spelling rules, illustrate their complex adjectives, examples of which are given in the tables below.
In this case, complex adjectives can be written through a hyphen and together or be part of a word combination, where the adjective is not part of a complex word.
|No.||Rule||Sophisticated adjectives: examples|
|1||When the compound name of the adjective is formed from the complex noun name, which is written together.||oil pipeline - oil pipeline, steamer - steamship|
|2||In the formation of a complex adjective from the subordinate combination of words, including the word combinations "noun + adjective", which call geographic objects.||skiing - skiing, natural science - science, average - average per day; Balgorsky - Bald Mountains, berry - Yagodnaya Polyana|
|3||If the name adjective denotes a scientific term or is a special word.||scaly-winged, viviparous, mammals, milk canned, baked, geological prospecting|
|4||If the first part of the compound word is as follows: high-, higher-, deep-, densely-, steep-, coarse-, light-, small-, small-, multi-, low-, lower-, sharp-, flat-, strong-, weak-, , thin, hard, heavy, narrow, wide-. If there are explanatory words with such elements, then the writing is separate.||little studied (but: little studied by students), difficult to extract (but: difficult to exclude from the body), well-known (widely known abroad)|
|5||If the first part of a compound word is general-, upper-, middle-, lower-, ancient-, early-, late-.||Common, Middle Russian, Lower Volga, Old English, Early, Late Scythian|
Sophisticated adjectives: hyphenation
A lot of adjectives are written semi-delimited. The rules for hyphenation and compound adjectives (examples) are given in the table below.
|No.||Rule||Sophisticated adjectives through a hyphen: examples|
|Through a hyphen|
|1||When the compound name of the adjective is formed from the complex noun name, which is written through a hyphen.||North-West - North-West, Social-Democratic - Social Democracy, Issyk-Kul - Issyk-Kul (but: pre-Sissikkul, as it is a prefix)|
|2||If the adjective is formed from two proper names, for example, from two surnames or first and last names. The exception is the eastern names.||Pushkin-Gogol, Lion-Tolstoy, Jules-Vernovsky (but: Dzhekichanskaya, Khoshiminsky)|
|3||If an adjective is formed by merging several equal words (between them you can put an alliance and or but).||convex-concave, apple-plum, Russian-Chinese, expressive-emotional|
|4||If the adjective is formed by the fusion of several equal, but heterogeneous words.||official-business, electronic-computing, comparative-historical|
|5||If the first part of a compound word is military, popular, mass, educational, scientific.||military-legal, popular-liberation, mass-sports, educational-methodical, scientific and technical|
|6||If the adjective reflects a shade of color.||gray-green, yellow-blue, deep-black|
|7||Complex adjectival toponyms.||West-Korean, North Ossetian, South-Urals|
The phrase "adverb + adjective"
Complex words - adjectives, examples of which are given above, can be difficult to distinguish from similar phrases.
Spelling of complex adjectives: examples from literature
In works of fiction, complex adjectives are widely used.