System unit: composition and main characteristics

Sometimes, arguing on computer topics, peopleoften called a computer system unit, and cause a lot of questions about the composition and basic characteristics of all devices that are in it. Many users are not aware of the functionality and structure of the computer device, so the reader is encouraged to fill the gaps in knowledge. The article on the subject: "The system block: composition and main characteristics" will allow the user to always be savvy in matters of computer subjects.

system block composition

Metal box with bulbs

The totality of all computer components,responsible for the work of a personal computer, is called a system. Accordingly, the union of all elements on one platform, acting as one independent unit, is called a system unit. If we speak in an accessible language, then everything in the metal or plastic case, including the frame itself, is called a system. The composition of the system unit of a personal computer is known to almost any user: processor, motherboard, memory, video card, power supply and other components.

that is a part of the system unit

The basic functionality of the hull is not onlycombining all the elements of the computer, as well as providing free interaction - that is, physical access of all components to each other. On the market, it is customary to distinguish the enclosures by the form factor, which determines the size of the device (height, width and depth). Examples of form factor: ETX, ATX, midle-ATX, mini-ATX, micro-ATX, Barabone, Notebook, Server and others.

Heart of the system

The most important component of many usersconsider the processor, which is mandatory included in the PC system unit. This opinion is erroneous. The task of the central processor is data processing, ie, complex mathematical calculations: addition, division, subtraction, multiplication. The role of the heart in a personal computer is played by a power supply unit that not only delivers electricity to all elements of the platform, but also guarantees the quality of its supply (voltage and amperage).

structure of the system unit

When buying a computer, the user mustcorrectly calculate the energy consumption by all components of the system unit and select the required power factor that will cope with the task. Ignoring this recommendation and purchasing a low-quality power supply may render the computer useless. Naturally, the cost of one PSU is incommensurable with the losses when all computer parts fail.

Basic input-output system

It is impossible to build a computer without a motherboardboard, which is also part of the system unit. This device is designed to unite all elements of the platform, as well as to control the health of installed components. The motherboard has built-in software called BIOS. It is he who provides the operating environment with information about the elements that make up the system unit. The composition, serial number of the device, name and many other data can be found in this software.

In the motherboard, in addition to all possiblecontrollers and interfaces, all kinds of sensors that monitor the system's operation are integrated. In case of any problems, the device is able to notify the user of audio signals, however, this is solved at the level of special sounds that can be decrypted only by IT specialists (we are talking about POST-codes). Like the case of the device, the motherboard has a form factor and is determined by the same dimensions and markings.

Motherboard Features

On the computer market, there is segmentationcomponents by cost and application. So, a user choosing an inexpensive computer will find a decent device in a budget class, and fans of resource-intensive games need to choose spare parts for a PC in an expensive one. The basic difference between existing segments for all computer equipment that is part of the computer's system unit is its performance and compatibility.

computer system unit

Also, motherboards can be basic andintegrated. In the latter case, special controllers are installed on the base of the motherboard, which can emulate peripheral devices (sound card, video adapter, Wi-Fi-module, etc.). Integration of components significantly reduces the cost of the system unit as a whole, but buyers are not welcome, because embedded components use the processor's production capacity, slowing it down.

Brains of the computer

Considering the basic devices included inthe composition of the system unit, the user will certainly get acquainted with the RAM modules. This component in the computer is the processor's assistant. Working synchronously, both devices in the system perform calculations and completely control all data, including the operating system and running applications. The more memory, the faster the computer will be.

what devices are included in the system unit

The memory modules themselves are differentproduction technology (DDR4, DDR3, DDR2), as well as the data exchange rate (measured in the frequencies: 1333 MHz, 2133 MHz and so on). The higher the rate, the faster the speed, but there are some limitations. For maximum performance, it is recommended that the memory and the processor work at the same frequency (synchronously).

Warehouse of finished information

Data after processing should be stored somewhere,so the computer system unit necessarily includes a hard disk. The drives are magnetic and solid and differ in the amount of data they contain and the speed of work. It so happened that solid-state disks have a huge speed, but their production technology is too expensive, so the volume of such drives leaves much to be desired. Magnetic drives are cheaper in production, however, they have serious limitations on the speed of work. It is this restriction that is the weak link in the work of the entire system unit.

composition of the system unit of a personal computer

Many professionals recommend combiningtwo types of drives. A fast SSD drive is used for the operating system, and a slow one is used as a data warehouse. This decision is evaluated positively by many users.

Feedback from the owner of the computer

Finding out what devices are included in thethe system unit, do not forget about the link that allows the user to control the computer, as well as to see the results of their actions. This is a video adapter that is installed on the baseboard and allows you to transfer video in real time to the information display (monitor, TV). Video cards are discrete and integrated and differ in performance and functionality.

Naturally, the integrated adapter is limited incapabilities and is used in the computer only to display the image on the screen. But a discrete device is of greater interest to the user. Having its own graphics processor and RAM, the device is able to produce its own calculations, which are needed in all games.

Global network

The structure of the system unit is mandatorythere is also a network adapter that can also be integrated into the motherboard or be an independent device that is installed in the computer in a special slot. The market trend is that an integrated solution costs a penny, so many owners are already used to the idea that on the motherboard the network controller simply has to be.

structure of the pc system unit

The controllers themselves differ in speeddata transfer and functional. There are three speed standards: 10, 100 and 1024 megabits per second. And the functional only deals with additional features: network loading, providing information about network loading and remote management of the adapter.

Sound accompaniment

Discussing what is included in the system unit,many users forget about the sound card, which is a peripheral device, rather than an element of the motherboard. The adapter responsible for sound, like a discrete video adapter, is equipped with its own processor, memory and audio processing controllers. A remotely sound card resembles a miniature amplifier from a home theater, on board which there is both a receiver and a digital converter.

Choosing in the market a system unit, the composition of whichincludes a discrete audio adapter, you need to be prepared for the incommensurably high cost of the computer as a whole. You always have to pay for quality. Many manufacturers have integrated the audio adapter on the motherboard. This decision was greeted by most users positively, as the difference in sound, when compared with an expensive device, without having a musical ear, can not be seen.

Expansion cards and their functionality

You can judge the purpose of the computer by itsinteriors, for this it is necessary to remove the housing cover and determine which devices are part of the system unit. So, in the database server you can find a lot of hard drives and a RAID controller. This device is able to organize connected disks and create on their basis a backup storage.

In the editor's computer, you can find a boardcapture video or a professional TV tuner. This device allows you to convert the received signal into data and store it on hard disks. Game fans can see several discrete graphics cards, and the system administrator prefers to install an optical drive and many network cards in the system unit.


As practice shows, nothing complicated inno computer - this is a common designer, consisting of basic parts (mandatory elements) and peripherals. It is only necessary to know what the final result (purpose) should be and then it will not be difficult for anyone to collect the system unit by himself. The composition, however, will have to be determined, relying on financial opportunities, because the computer market requires considerable investments from buyers.