Heat pumps: operating principle and characteristic
The heat pump is The device, which can combine such,seemingly incompatible details, like a heating boiler, air conditioning and a source of hot water. The main difference of this device is that it can use renewable low-temperature energy for water heating and heating needs. At the same time, most of the power that it produces (up to 80%) is practically "pumped out" from the external environment by the energy of the sun's rays. What kind of heat pumps work principle - you will learn from our today's article.
Briefly about the nuances
In scientific language such a concept as "thermalpump "means a vapor compression unit that serves to transport heat from a low-temperature source to a high-potential source. In other words, it transfers energy from a cold object to a hot one. What is the heat pump principle of operation? The algorithm of their action, namely the heat transfer, is carried out by condensation and subsequent evaporation of substances that circulate in a closed circle (see Figure 2). For all this movement, the mechanism uses a small part of the electrical energy, while the power of the device is very large, despite the low current consumption.
Heat pumps: the principle of operation
And now let's consider the algorithm of actionof this tool. This entire process is constructed on the Carnot cycle, which consists in the following stages. First, in the heat pump compressor, the gaseous refrigerant is compressed, which causes the heating in the water circuit. After that, under high pressure, a liquid enters the special heat exchanger-condenser, where it begins to cool and form a condensate. At the same time, useful heat is delivered directly to the heating system.
Then the gas passes through the expansion valve. There it expands, so the pressure level in the system again decreases, and this value decreases together with the fluid temperature in the system. As a rule, when the gas enters the valve, the water is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature. After that, the gaseous refrigerant passes into the heat exchanger, where, evaporating, it takes heat from the ground. And since heat pumps work in a closed manner, in the next stage this gas flows back to the compressor. Thus, the algorithm of operation of this device practically does not differ from that of a conventional household air conditioner.
It should be noted...
In the course of the article in the subheading "Heat Pumps: principle of work "we mentioned the word" soil ", from which the coolant takes away heat. Here it is necessary to note that this is not the only factor on which the action of the heat pump depends. When the temperature and pressure values change, the system also uses sources such as air and water. This is how a heat pump works. The price, by the way, for such devices is from 35 to 250 thousand rubles.