"Admiral Lazarev", nuclear cruiser: history and characteristics
Missile cruisers - a fairly new kindships that grew up not from classic cruisers with a rich biography, but formed a separate direction in the world shipbuilding on the basis of destroyers. A special place in their development was occupied by a subclass of nuclear warships.
And since they were created for the conduct ofnuclear war, they did not have traditional constructive protection. And some of the displacement meant for carrying heavy armor was absorbed by increasingly new types of weapons with their changed volumes and energy consumption, as well as crew quarters, which also changed requirements, especially on ships intended for long-term autonomous navigation.
The Orlan Project
The project was based on the premisecreation of an ocean ship of unlimited autonomy, which was supposed to search for, and then destroy, nuclear submarine missile carriers in the open spaces of the World Ocean.
The Leningrad Northern BKB received a TOR forthe development of a new project, which was named "Orlan" and number 1144. The project envisaged a local scheme for protecting the most important types of weapons from the impact of a missile strike. Therefore, most of the weapons were hidden under the deck.
The main enemy of the new ship was assumedpowerful enemy aircraft. And to combat it, weapons of air defense of different principle of action and calibers were introduced into the armament. Anti-ship missiles were designed to deal with aircraft carriers.
Project 1144 was very stretched in time,supplemented and processed. The appearance of a multipurpose combat ship was becoming clearer and clearer. At one stage the future ship received the final classification, it became a heavy nuclear missile cruiser.
Analogs abroad the ships of the project "Orlan" (forhe received the designation Kirov-class battlecruiser on behalf of the first TARK) they do not have. The total displacement of the cruiser is almost 26 thousand tons, whereas even a non-serial missile cruiser with a nuclear power plant "Long Beach" of the US Navy is one and a half times less.
The government of the Soviet Union decided to build four warships of this class.
After the first cruiser was laid, the project wasand the next three cruisers were built under Project 11442. All ships differ in the types and quantities of weapons. It was assumed that all ships would be equipped under a new project, but not all types of weapons were launched into batch production and added as soon as they were ready. Therefore only the last cruiser corresponds to the project almost completely.
Project ships 1144
TARK "Kirov", founded in 1977 in the spring,came into operation in the last days of 1980. In 1992, was included in the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy under the new name "Admiral Ushakov" and was decommissioned in 2004. Now he expects recycling.
Next was the Frunze, founded in the summer of 1978year and entered service in the autumn of 1984. The new name of the ship is Admiral Lazarev. The nuclear-powered cruiser was the only one of the Orlan ships to serve in the Pacific Fleet.
Tark "Kalinin" was laid with some lag,In the spring of 1983, he entered the system at the end of 1988. Later it became known as "Admiral Nakhimov". Now it is under repair in Severodvinsk and will be transferred to the Northern Fleet in 2018.
"Admiral Lazarev", nuclear cruiser, modernizationwhich can begin only after the first ship of the series has been disposed of in Severodvinsk, or will complete the reconstruction and go to the place of service "Admiral Nakhimov", is waiting for the decision of its fate at the mooring wall of the factory in the Pacific.
Construction of the fourth ship, completionthe first stage of which fell on the collapse of the USSR and, in connection with this, a drastic reduction in funding, stretched for many years. Established in 1986, it entered service only in 1998. But now the flagship of the Northern Fleet, Peter the Great, is the only one to serve.
Technical data of the cruiser
So, the current "Admiral Lazarev", nuclearthe cruiser, whose length is 252, the width - 28.5 and the draft - more than 9 m, became the second ship of the project "Orlan". The cruiser's half-tank is about 70% of the length of the ship. It is divided by watertight bulkheads into sixteen compartments. There are 5 decks throughout the building. In the stern under the deck is equipped with a hangar for three helicopters and a lift for feeding them upstairs, premises for storing fuel and ammunition. The main material of superstructures is aluminum-magnesium alloys.
There is no general booking on the cruiser, but the bottomis made double to protect against combat damage, and at the waterline level, a thickened shell belt extends around the perimeter, its height is 1 m below the waterline and 2.5 m above it.
Armor protection is made in machine andreactor compartments, rocket cellars, a helicopter hangar, cellars of ammunition, fuel storage. The artillery installations, the main command post of the ship and the combat information post are protected.
"Admiral Lazarev" is an atomic cruiser,the characteristics of which allow unlimited time to be in autonomous navigation on a nuclear reactor. And on boilers at the declared speed, it can stay in the sea for 1000 days.
Its maximum displacement is 26.2 thousand tons. On the auxiliary boilers can speed up seventeen knots, and on the main unit - 31 knots, or in the land measurement 57 km / h.
"Admiral Lazarev" is an atomic cruiser, the engines of which operate on nuclear fuel.
Two-shaft power plant withfive-bladed screws. It consists of two water-cooled thermal neutron reactors, whose capacity is 600 mW, two steam turbines with a total capacity of 140 thousand liters. from.
In the composition of each of the two autonomous sectionsThe steam-producing plant includes a reactor with systems and service devices. The PPU is located in the reactor compartment. On both sides of it, along the bow and stern of the ship, there is a steam-turbine plant of two autonomous parts, and each of them operates on its own line.
On the cruiser there is also a reserve option for providing steam turbines. Automated steam boilers with organic fuel produce 115 tons of steam per hour each.
The supply of steam and condensate is carried out on any board along a branched network of pipelines.
The ship is powered by four turbogenerators, each with a capacity of 3000 kW, and four gas turbine generators of 1500 kW each. They are located in four compartments.
Such an energy installation allows to provide electricity and heat to a small city of thousands for 150 people.
TARK "Admiral Lazarev" is an atomic cruiser, the armament of which is supplemented by aviation with missile, antiaircraft, artillery, torpedo-mine.
The main strike force of the ship is twentyanti-ship missile systems "Granite" - supersonic cruise missiles with a starting mass of 7 tons, flying low at the target, with a flight range of more than 600 km. They are located in launchers under the deck in the bow. The elevation is 47 °.
The missiles in flight are autonomous, one of them flies above the others in the volley and controls them, distributes the targets, before the goal they all perform a counter-intricate complex maneuver.
For near defense, cruisers are installed on both sides of the nose superstructure of the Osa-MA missile system with pull-out double-beam PU for 40 missiles.
The main means of air defense of the far zone on the cruiser are two S-300F "Fort" anti-aircraft missile systems, with six vertical launchers each.
One PU is designed to launch eight missiles, thenthere is only a ship can release 96 rockets at the same time. Goals, the speed of which reaches 1.3 km / sec, "Fort" is able to strike at a distance of up to 75 km, at an altitude of 25 to 25 thousand meters.
Artillery and antiaircraft weapons
The nuclear-powered missile cruiser Admiral Lazarev wasIt is equipped as artillery armament with a two-torpedo 130 mm AK-130 tower, located in the stern with the M-184 firing control system, which can simultaneously support two targets. Horizontally, the tools can be turned 180 °, vertically down to minus 10 ° and rise to 85 °.
This versatile complex can fire at air, coastal and sea targets at a speed of up to 86 rounds per minute at a distance of up to 25 km.
"Admiral Lazarev" - nuclear cruiser, antiaircraftartillery short-range, which was represented by four batteries of two six-barreled 30-mm AK-630M assault rifle and a total ammunition of 48 thousand shells.
Heavy nuclear missile cruiser "Admiral"Lazarev "as an antisubmarine weapon was equipped with a missile system" Waterfall ", rocket-torpedoes of the model 83RN or 84RN which were launched from torpedo tubes along the sides of the ship. The rocket dived into the water, at the depth of the engine was launched, it flew off and through the air reached the target at a distance of 60 km. Only there the combat part was separated - the 400 mm self-guided torpedo UMGT-1 or the nuclear depth bomb. The ammunition was up to thirty rocket-torpedoes.
In the bow was installed a jet twelve barrel 213-mm RBU-6000 "Smerch-2", and at the stern - two 303-mm bombsets of 6 RBU-1000 "Smerch-3".
"Admiral Lazarev" - nuclear cruiser, on boardwhich was based on an aviation detachment of three heavy helicopters anti-submarine modification or target designation, depending on the tasks assigned. They could perform search and rescue missions, reconnaissance and target designation, anti-submarine search. In addition to the hangar below the deck, the lift and the storage of ammunition, the cruiser was equipped with a runway at the stern and a post of aviation control with the necessary navigational equipment. For the crews, separate cabins were provided.
Cruisers of this project were the first to receive such a reserve of displacement, so that you could hide under the deck and cars, and a stock of fuel to them.
Radar weapons and communications equipment
"Admiral Lazarev" - nuclear cruiser with the newestradioelectronic weapons. It included survey radar MR-600 "Voskhod" and MP-710M "Fregat-M", combined in the radar complex "Flag", two navigational stations "Vaigach", two stations for detecting low-flying targets "Podkat", the system "Drive-V" "For the radio navigation of helicopters.
Radio-technical reconnaissance and radio-electronicthe struggle was carried out by the "Cantata-M" complex. The means of counteraction included also two coupled launchers of a complex of fired jamming with ammunition of 400 rounds, a towed false torpedo target with a powerful noise generator.
The radio communication complex "Typhoon-2" consisted of communication systems in different wave bands, including satellite communications "Tsunami-BM".
Management was carried out with the help of the combat information management system (BIUS) "Logger 44".
Atomic missile cruiser Admiral Lazarev, av. 1144/11442, serviced the crew of more than seven hundred people, including 100 to 120 officers.
For officers and midshipmen, one- anddouble cabins, for sailors and foremen - cabins, designed for 6-30 people. At the disposal of the team were two baths, a sauna, a swimming pool measuring 6 × 2.5 m, fifteen showers, a medical unit with an X-ray room, an outpatient clinic, an operating room, an infirmary and a pharmacy.
For rest on the cruiser there are three wardrooms, a salon, a gym.
And on board there were own television studio, three elevators and forty-nine corridors with a length of almost twenty kilometers.
The Past of the Cruiser
"Admiral Lazarev", the nuclear cruiser, which until 1992 had the name "Frunze", from 1984 to 1996, changed several of the aircraft numbers: 190, 050, 028, 014, 058, 010, 015.
The cruiser was launched in the spring of 1981, entered service in the fall of 1984, and in the fall of 1985 made a transition from the Baltic to the duty station in Vladivostok.
On the way, the TARK went to the ports of Luanda in Angola, Aden in South Yemen and several ports of Vietnam.
The collapse of the Soviet Union led to seriousproblems, including the Navy. While the last ship of the series was being built with great efforts, the first two came almost completely out of order. In the 90s of the last century, the Admiral Lazarev fleet was withdrawn from the combat fleet for long-term preservation and became a joke in the Abrek bay. At the end of the century, it was prepared for disposal, then they found a small part of the means for repair at one of the regional repair enterprises.
At the end of 2002, a fire broke out on a ship in one of the cabins. With fire, fought for four hours, but safely extinguished. Two years later, the nuclear power plants were removed from the cruiser.
So in 2011 the "Admiral Lazarev", an atomic cruiser (photo below) looked like.
The Future of the Cruiser
While the ship is on the road, guessing about its future fate is useless. The decision to upgrade has been made, but whether it will be carried out, and to what extent, time will tell.
"Admiral Lazarev" - nuclear cruiser, modernizationwhich will be held on the reduced technical reconstruction project of the Admiral Nakhimov TARK, has now been repaired at the dock for restoring buoyancy at the 30 shipyard of the Pacific Fleet and expects further changes in its destiny.
Let today from four highly autonomous TARCs inthey are still the largest and most powerful in the world in their class. The first and only surface nuclear ships of the Soviet and later Russian navy, which have no analogues in the world.