Industry of Ukraine. General characteristic of the industry of Ukraine
To ensure a decent standard of living for citizens,The country needs a powerful economic potential. The number of goods and services that a certain state produces, as well as the ability to implement them, are among the most important indicators of well-being and stability. The industry of Ukraine began to emerge in the late 18th century, and today it is represented by many industries.
Classification of Ukrainian economy
Depending on what the destination isproduction, allocate branches of industry, that they manufacture means of production. Another name for this category is heavy industry. This includes industrial enterprises of the metallurgical complex, forestry, chemical industry, as well as machine-building plants and factories. The second group - the industry, specializing in the production of consumer goods. Basically it is food production, light industry. It is important to note that the volumes of products produced by the enterprises of the first group are much higher. There are also branches of industry in Ukraine that extract or process resources. The first can include all those areas that are engaged in the production of fuel or any raw materials. The processing enterprises subject them to processing (mechanical engineering, the chemical industry).
Territorial features of the location of production in Ukraine
In Ukraine, there are some featuresaccommodation of enterprises of the national economy. It is worth noting that there is an uneven distribution of industries. Large enterprises of the metallurgical complex, chemical plants are located mainly in the east of Ukraine. Also it is possible to allocate also such industrial sites, as the Zaporozhye region, Kiev, Kharkov. At the same time, the western part of the country has no such potential. These areas produce food, are engaged in agriculture. Such territorial features of industries have a number of negative aspects. First, the level of pollution of the East is an order of magnitude higher. In addition, there is an uneven distribution of the population.
To provide the population with electricity, an importantthe role is played by the fuel and energy complex. The coal industry in Ukraine specializes in the extraction of coal and its further processing. Territories on which there are deposits of coal - this is the Donetsk region, part of the Lviv and Volyn regions, Dnepropetrovsk. However, the first basin is the richest, with an area of 50,000 km2. A feature of coal mining in the Donets Basin is its great depth of bedding, as well as its saturation with dangerous gases. All this significantly affects the cost of fuel. Lviv-Volyn coal is less qualitative, however it is not so difficult to extract. The main place of occurrence of brown coal is the Dnepropetrovsk basin.
Oil production and processing
The industry of Ukraine includes the industry,which is engaged in oil production and processing. To date, about 130 deposits of this raw material are known. The Dnipro-Donetsk region is the largest. The Carpathian site is now somewhat launched. The least explored is the Black Sea basin. This is explained by the difficult conditions of oil production, and even its reserves are not so significant. The main problems of this industry are the depletion of deposits, insufficient funding for further development of subsoil resources. To ensure the domestic needs of the country, a certain amount of crude oil is imported. The industrial enterprises that process it are located in Kremenchug, Lisichansk, Drogobych. Peat is considered as an alternative fuel. Ukraine has enough of its reserves. Today, about 3000 peat deposits are known.
Energy Complex of Ukraine
Without exaggeration, we can say thatelectricity is necessary in almost all areas of our life. The industry of Ukraine in the field of energy production is represented by thermal, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations.
Manufacture of metals and alloys
Metallurgy is an industry that is sufficiently developedin the country. Is one of the most profitable. The map of the industry of Ukraine is rich in metallurgical plants, on which occurs the smelting of steel (or cast iron), and the production of products from it. One of the most progressive methods of metal production is the use of electric ovens and oxygen convectors. Rolled steel is rolled. It can be square, round, or have a different shape. Ukraine specializes in the production of pipes for gas pipelines (they have a sufficiently large diameter). The country has considerable reserves of raw materials for the iron and steel industry. This is iron ore, and limestone. Manganese ores are used for the production of refractories. Sufficient reserves and coke. The Ministry of Industry of Ukraine speaks of a large number of exports in this sector. Large enterprises are located in Mariupol, Kharkov, Donetsk, Lugansk. Non-ferrous metallurgy is also developed. This is mainly an aluminum industry, the manufacture of rare and semiconductor materials, precious metals.
The level of development of mechanical engineering directlyindicates the economic well-being of the country. It is this industry that implements all new developments, provides comfortable living conditions for citizens. Industry of Ukraine has about 60 types of productions of this type. The assortment is multifaceted: it is computer technologies, and sea vessels. There are such kinds of specialization:
- subject, which is engaged in the production of final products (machines, apparatus, instruments);
- nodal (motors, designs for the final product);
- detailed (production of individual parts);
- technological (coatings, blanks).
In general, this industry is engaged inproduction of machines of various types, electrical equipment, and also includes transport engineering. By type of use, civil products and defense products are distinguished. The location of enterprises is quite free, as it is not dependent on resources. Basically, they are located in regions with a good scientific base and a sufficient number of qualified personnel. Mechanical engineering plants are located in Kiev and Lviv. The main target is the end user. Shipbuilding is concentrated in Odessa, Mariupol. Kharkov is a large center for the production of agricultural machinery. Automotive is an industry that is very popular. Industrial enterprises of such specialization are located in Lutsk, Lviv, Zaporozhye.
Chemical Industry in Ukraine
This branch of the national economy collectsmixed reviews. On the one hand, it can produce substances and materials that do not exist in nature. But on the other, its enterprises pollute the environment. In Ukraine, it is represented by the production of dyes, varnishes, plastic products, household chemicals. One of the directions is pharmaceuticals. It produces medicines, disinfectants. The largest enterprises of the pharmacological complex are concentrated in Kiev, Lviv and Kharkov. It is also worth mentioning the petrochemical industry, which is engaged in the production of tires, carbon black. There are four main areas where this industry is developed quite well: Donetsk, Black Sea, Pridneprovsky and Carpathian. To date, the priority areas are the production of mineral fertilizers, plastics, organic synthesis products.
Light industry enterprises
Today in Ukraine there are about 2000the enterprises which are engaged in release of fabrics, clothes, footwear. However, compared with the end of the last century, the scale of manufacturing of such products has significantly decreased. The needs of the population are also ensured by a considerable amount of imports. Linen industry uses domestic raw materials, besides, Ukraine is an exporter of this material. There is a large number of enterprises that sew clothes from fabrics imported from other countries. The light industry of Ukraine includes fur and leather industries (raw materials are mainly used in the domestic industry). The well-known center for the production of fur coats and other fur products is the city of Tysmenytsia (Ivano-Frankivsk region). In the Poltava region, companies specializing in children's and adult knitwear are concentrated. Factories of linen industry are mainly located in Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr regions. Shoes made in Ukraine are also worthy of attention due to their quality tailoring. The main centers of such production are Lviv, Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov.
Manufacture of food products
Enterprises engaged in preparing products forconsumption, processing, are located practically throughout the territory of Ukraine. Each region has its own bakery, dairies. The sugar industry is well developed in 19 regions. Large factories for meat processing are located in Kiev, Donetsk, Odessa, Lviv and other cities. The food industry of Ukraine can not do without the manufacture of sunflower oil, various varieties of wine, honey. There are also enterprises that produce fruit and vegetable canned food. They are concentrated in Odessa, Kherson, Zaporozhye.
Traditionally, Ukraine is a country in whichat a high level developed agriculture. Due to the characteristics of the soil, the crops are sufficiently large and of high quality. There are two main areas of the industry - livestock and plant growing. In Ukraine, the leading positions are the production of grain crops, beans, potatoes. Also much is grown and sugar beet and other vegetables. Another direction is the production of chestnut crops. And, of course, do not forget about berries, mushrooms. Livestock breeding is engaged in breeding pigs, sheep, various kinds of birds. Today there is a huge number of small private farms that produce products of decent quality.