Fuel oil. Characteristics, application, prices

Fuel oil is a special material derived fromof oil products or is the residue of its forcing. This type of fuel consists mainly of resins having a molecular weight of 500-3000 g / mol, as well as hydrocarbons with a mass of 400 to 100 g / mol. This can be carbene, asphaltene, carbide, and also various kinds of organic compounds.

Types of fuel oil

Currently, the industry uses mainly these types of this material:

  • cracking;

  • Straight;

  • naval;

  • furnace.

The latter variety is very popular. As already can be judged by the name, it is used mainly for heating premises.

heating oil

Types of fuel oil and its application area

This variety itself is divided into two more large groups:

  • Actually furnace fuel oil.

  • Diesel fuel.

Fuel oils of the first group are by their naturea heavy form of oil. More often all such material is used in old boiler houses of different kind of agricultural enterprises. Sometimes it is used by commercial enterprises for heating offices or departments. Diesel fuel is usually purchased for heating private or even multi-storey houses in different (mostly remote) regions of Russia, for example, in the North Urals, in the Arctic, etc. It differs from a purely fuel oil (red diesel) with a greater degree of purification and ease.

heating oil

It is justified to use this material inThe quality of fuel for boilers is usually in those cases where in the locality where the residential building or production hall is located, there is no gas main. The fuel oil is very inexpensive, but its burning is highly polluting. In addition, this type of fuel because of its flammability is quite difficult to store, and it is often not cheap.

Main characteristics

When choosing a material such as heating oil for a boiler house, usually pay attention to such indicators as:

  • viscosity of the material;

  • its density level;

  • flash point;

  • ash content;

  • percentage of sulfur;

  • pour point.

Viscosity of fuel oil

According to this indicator, two maina kind of material. The fuel oil 40 and 40V is considered medium viscosity, 100 and 100V - heavy. Light materials for heating of various types of premises are not used. They are used mostly only in the fleet as a diesel fuel and labeled as F5 and F12.

Express the viscosity of fuel oil more often in degrees (°VU). This parameter is determined by the Engler viscometer. This takes into account the time of passage of fuel oil through the tapped hole at a certain temperature. For heating oil 40, the last parameter is 80 degrees, for a material of grade M100, 100 gr. The change in the viscosity of fuel oil at different temperatures is due primarily to the presence of hydrocarbons in the paraffin series.


This parameter characterizes such an important propertymaterial, such as the ability to settle from water. The latter can get into the heating oil when it is heated with the use of dry steam or when transporting it on old ships.

types of fuel oil

For the extraction of water from the material,Special installations that increase its density. What should be this indicator for this or that brand of such material as fuel oil? GOST standard standards for each of them (at a temperature of 20 aboutFROM). You can find out the specific indicator for each brand from the table below.




965 kg / m3


1015 kg / m3


955 kg / m3


960 kg / m3

Density of fuel oil, thus, it isone of the most important parameters, which should be paid attention when buying this material. Otherwise, you can buy not too high-quality product.

Flash point

This property of fuel oil is determined in an opencrucible, placed in an iron cup with sand. Measure the flash point with a special thermometer during the ignition of its vapors mixed with the surrounding air, when an open flame is applied to them. The fluctuation of this parameter for different types of fuel oil can range from 90-170 aboutC. For fire material M100, according to the standard, the flash point should be 110 aboutC. For M40 - 90 aboutFROM. That is, the latter can be considered safer when stored. When performing an operation such as heating oil, it is necessary to adhere to the standards for the temperature, which is 10 degrees below the t flash.

density of fuel oil

Ash content of fuel oil

This parameter is also an important fuel characteristic. Increasing the ash content of fuel oil leads to a decrease in its heat transfer during combustion. As a result:

  • Increases fuel consumption for combustion;

  • the degree of environmental pollution increases.

Ash contained in the fuel oil, among other things,clogs the nozzles of the boilers, thus significantly reducing their service life. It is believed that in good fuel oil the content of this impurity should not exceed 0.1%. Reduce the ash content of the material, as well as increase its density, it is possible by settling the water and its subsequent draining.

Freezing point

This indicator directly depends on the viscosity. The freezing point of fuel oil is determined simply. Material is poured into a test tube and the last one is tilted 45 degrees. Next, look at what minimum temperature its level will remain stable for one minute.

What should be the freezing point of such material as fuel oil? GOST prescribes the following:

  • For the M40 grade, this figure should be 10 aboutFROM.

  • For fuel oil of other brands, the temperature can rise to 36 aboutFROM.

This indicator is determined mainly by the degree of content in the paraffin material. The higher the temperature of solidification of fuel oil, the more difficult it is to transport it by pipelines.

heating oil

Sulfur content

This indicator also distinguishes severaltypes of fuel oil. Sulfur content of the material depends primarily on what kind of oil was used for its production. The range of the substance in the fuel oil is 0.5-3.5%. Most of all sulfur is a part of the material of the brand M100. This impurity is considered harmful, since it increases the rate of corrosion of the metal parts of the boilers. In addition, the use of heavy fuel oil with a high sulfur content contributes to very severe air pollution. Reduce the percentage of this substance in the fuel can be by hydrogenation or passing through sorbents. Sometimes fuel oil is simply diluted with another, more pure.


At present, fuel oil is considered one of themost economical fuels. In this regard, it significantly exceeds even cheap natural gas. Mark - this is what primarily determines the cost of such material as fuel oil. The price of M40 material does not usually exceed 9-13 thousand rubles per ton. The cost of the most popular fuel oil M100 is usually 6-10 thousand rubles per ton (depending on the supplier). When buying this type of fuel, among other things, you should pay attention to whether included in its price of VAT.

characteristics of fuel oil

So, the characteristics of fuel oil werewe are considered in all details. Thus, when buying this inexpensive material, first of all you should pay attention to such indicators as viscosity, density and flash point. Also it is necessary to find out what amount of sulfur is contained in the fuel oil, and what is the degree of its ash content.