Labor as a factor of production
There are factors without which the concept of production is notit would make sense, and these are the factors that affect the volume of production. Factors of production efficiency are quite diverse, since there are a great many resources for it. There are three main groups of factors: land, labor and capital. Water, forests, fields, minerals, etc., that is, something given by nature or created by man (for example, drained swamps) is the earth.
Labor as a factor of production is also heterogeneousa concept that in a complex means the combined efforts of people. Since there are so many professions and specialties, and each of them requires specific knowledge and skills, they need appropriate training to obtain them. Training allows you to acquire this knowledge and improve your existing qualifications. The population that can work is called the workforce. For Russia, labor is men (18-60 years) and women (18-55 years).
Labor as a factor of production is very important andis relevant, since it means the participation of a person in the production process, the use of his own energy and potential. The basic elements of labor include objects of labor, means and expedient human activity. The main results of labor: economic benefits, human development (physiological and mental), the conditions of human life, the accumulation of knowledge and experience.
Labor is not just an engine of progress, labor -it is the basis of existence and life activity of a person, because under his influence the brain, speech develops, experience accumulates, skills are improved.
Labor as a factor of production has content and character. The content distinguishes low-skilled, medium-skill and highly skilled labor.
Labor has quantitative and qualitativecharacteristics. Qualitative characteristics are the level of qualification of employees, quantitative ones are costs (number of employees, intensity of work activity, working hours). The more time it takes to train and train a specialist, the more qualified it is.
In order to determine the nature of labor, it is necessaryto carry out a thorough analysis of the mix of labor and means of production, to clarify who and in what quantities appropriates the results of labor. With this in mind, three main social types of labor are distinguished: free, hired and forced. Forced labor is forced labor (slave labor). At present, the first two types of work are encountered.
Free labor is voluntary. This is labor activity on oneself, when the owner and the employee act in one person. A typical example of such activities: entrepreneur, farmer, etc. If the labor activity is hired, then the employer and the employee are different people, their relations are formalized by the employment contract, sometimes by agreement or contract, and by the results of labor the employee receives a certain monetary reward.
For a long time the question remained controversial,Whether labor is a factor of production or is labor. The physical, mental and intellectual abilities of a person are the work force. If the employer is interested in a person's ability to work, then the factor of production is the labor force. If the working time is important for him, then this factor is labor. To qualitatively work, a person must have certain health, abilities and skills, hence it follows that the labor exists before the labor process begins.
Labor productivity is the attitudethe result of labor (the number of products produced) in a certain period of time. Labor productivity, in turn, depends on a number of factors that can affect it.