Indicators of liquidity of the enterprise and management of liquidity of a commercial bank
The most important aspect of the enterprise's activities orbank is to maintain its ability to strictly fulfill its obligations without additional costs and losses, as defined by the concept of liquidity.
The term "liquidity" means simplicitythe transformation of wealth into money. Liquidity characterizes the willingness of a bank or an enterprise to fulfill financial obligations. Liquidity indicators of the enterprise include several local parameters.
The liquidity indicators of the balance sheet reflectthe situation that has developed for a certain moment in the ratio of liquid assets available to the bank and its liabilities. In other words, this is the ability of the timely transformation of assets into payment facilities fixed in the balance sheet to fulfill their obligations.
Absolute liquidity indicators - morebroader than the liquidity of the balance concept, characterizing the ability to fulfill obligations by partners or other subjects of relationships. It should be noted that the bank is considered liquid, having a liquid balance. But ensuring the bank's liquidity can not be identified only with the fulfillment of this condition. A number of external factors can destroy the bank's liquidity, even if it has a balance that is close to ideal.
The liquidity of a separate commercial bank isas well as the cumulative characteristics of all banks on this basis, determine the concept of higher liquidity - the liquidity of the banking system.
The liquidity indicators of the enterprise are complex,a multi-level concept that is a system of relations regarding the performance by enterprises of their obligations with a view to obtaining a certain effect, corresponding to each level of functioning.
Today, liquidity is one of thekey economic indicators of economic activity, and its provision is an indispensable criterion for the stable development of the economy as a whole. Indicators of liquidity of the enterprise, on which the stability of the activity of all business entities and citizens participating in monetary relations is largely dependent, is one of the key parameters of economic health. For example, recent developments in the financial markets of several countries have confirmed the priority need for the development of the banking sector, along with the reform of various sectors of the economy. Most medium and small enterprises and banks today do not pay enough attention to the introduction of methods of economic and mathematical analysis into their activities, and the level of modern information technologies they use is still low. As a result, low liquidity indicators of an enterprise or other economic entity.
The same applies to the quality of management implemented in banks. In this situation, the task of the bank to maintain its liquidity is significantly complicated.
A special and very important role in maintainingbank liquidity is played by the Central Bank. In order to control the maintenance of commercial banks' liquidity level, the National Bank has established mandatory economic standards: instant, current, short-term liquidity and the minimum ratio of liquid and total assets.
Their daily execution allows the central bank to control the availability of commercial banks of the required amount of liquid funds for a specific period.
Such actions allow quite effectivelyto regulate the liquidity of the system of banks and enterprises, by obligatory reservation and compliance with standards, while keeping the latter in the so-called "security zone". Thus, the implementation of all regulations and instructions with a moderate business strategy guarantees a very high level of economic security to the commercial bank, including liquidity.