"Admiral Ushakov" (cruiser): history and characteristics
One-sixth of the land was occupied by the Soviet Union.Partly due to the geographical location, partly to technological opportunities, the development of the courts of the Navy in the country was given a lot of time. However, this is still engaged in any large state.
Boats and cruisers, submarines and aircraft carriers, lightand large - lists of technological solutions can be continued for a very long time. One such was Orlan, or Project 1144. The heavy nuclear missile cruiser Admiral Ushakov is the flagship of the project, which has no analogues in any fleet of the world. It is about him, his capabilities, characteristics, military and technical data, we'll talk about in the article.
Evolution of the name
It should be noted that the name "Admiral Ushakov" cruiserreceived not immediately. "Admiral stripes" appeared after the collapse of the Union in 1992. Then he and 3 more "Orlan" got new names. However, only one - the 4th - bears the name "Peter the Great". The first three became "admirals". These are Ushakov, Lazarev and Nakhimov. At the descent from the stalks, the courts were named "Kirov", "Frunze", "Kalinin", respectively. The fourth cruiser was first named "Kuibyshev", then, before the end of construction, he received a new name - "Yuri Andropov".
To date, only "Peter the Great" is in the service. "Nakhimov" is on modernization. The first two, perhaps, will also be updated, but for Nakhimov.
The Orlan Project
To the idea of creating a ship, which became laternuclear cruiser "Admiral Ushakov", came not at once. The initial projects date back to the 50s of the last century. Then it was decided to create two types of ships - one was to become a cruiser (project 63), the second - a ship of air defense (draft 81). For both types, it was planned to use an atomic reactor as a power plant.
Then project 81 was closed, and work on both typesreduced in one direction. The ship was to become not very large, but to have the capabilities of both air defense and a simple cruiser. Unfortunately, Project 63 did not live much longer, and soon it was also closed.
Return to the "atomic" project comes only inlate 60-ies, when the Leningrad Central Design Bureau is entrusted with the creation of an "inexpensive" nuclear watchdog vessel. The ship must have a displacement of about 8,000 tons (for comparison, the flagship of this project - the Admiral Ushakov missile cruiser - received 24,000), to be able not only to escort other ships, providing them with fire support, but also to track down and, if necessary, enemy. One of the main "chips" was to be an unlimited range of navigation. The initial project planned to build about 40 such vessels, but as it turned out, the industry was simply not ready to launch a ship of such displacement, not to mention its possible price.
"Fugas" + "Orlan"
Despite these inconsistencies, the project 1144gets a green street. Nuclear, artillery installations, torpedo tubes and even an unmanned helicopter are being developed. It is worth noting that the development of these aircraft in the Union began long before this idea dawned on the Americans. However, the ship did not see the helicopter. But there is another, no less important moment for the then "Kirov" (later "Admiral Ushakov"). The cruiser passes from the category of "ship tracking" to the category of "antisubmarine ship".
The matter is that in parallel "Орлану" wentdevelopment of a purely shock vessel, the project of which was codenamed "Fugas" (or "product 1165"). And in May 1971, when there was already a development of weapons for both ships, the projects were being combined. The future ship gets the best weapons options that have been developed for each type.
Descent to the water
A year after the merger of the militarythe final version is presented. Then in March 1973 at the Baltiyskiy Plant, Ordzhonikidze laid the head cruiser. In the final version of the project, five vessels were planned, four of which were built. But it should be noted that the fourth ship - Peter the Great - immediately received several differences from his fellow men. In particular, he has greater autonomy of navigation, improved anti-submarine and hydro-acoustic weapons, more modern cruise missiles.
Four years later, in the New Year's Day of 1977, the heavy nuclear cruiser Admiral Ushakov was launched and enlisted in the Soviet Navy. This year was marked for the project "Orlan" by another event. It is then that the Navy introduces a new classification, and "Kirov" from the category of a simple anti-submarine ship becomes a heavy nuclear missile cruiser.
Description and construction
At the time of design, and then builtthe world's wide distribution of composite materials. Therefore, the developed superstructures of the floating craft are mainly made of aluminum-magnesium alloys. Most of the weapons are installed in the stern and bow. Additional armored chambers close the engine room, the ammunition cellar, and practically all important posts of the vessel "Admiral Ushakov".
The cruiser has an elongated half-tank and a double bottom on thethe entire length of the vessel. The surface part consists of five decks (also all over the body). In the rear part - a deck below the hangar, designed to permanently locate three helicopters. In the same place, a lifting mechanism is designed and rooms are provided for storing all materials necessary for flights. In a separate compartment there is a lifting and lowering system for the antenna release of the Polynom complex.
The construction of such a ship put forward a verylarge requirements for possible manufacturing plants. Firstly, in the final design, the ship received a displacement of more than 24,000 tons. Secondly, the maximum length of the hull was to be more than 250 m. There was still a whole series of requirements that only one plant in the Soviet Union could satisfy - Leningradsky.
Before talking about weapons, it is worth noting,that the nuclear-powered missile cruiser Admiral Ushakov had to strike at the enemy's shipborne carrier groups, track down and destroy submarines, and, of course, provide air defense and (in the future) anti-missile defense of its territories. Proceeding from all the above tasks, the ship received a whole list of all kinds of weapons. Since more than one article is required for a detailed description of each type, we will have to confine ourselves to brief characteristics.
The main strike arms are represented by the system"Granite" - anti-ship missile system, located in the bow. It includes 20 missiles, the maximum range of flight is 550 km, the combat part is nuclear. 500 kg of warhead.
Anti-aircraft weapons are the Fort missile system. The cruiser has 12 drum sets with 8 missiles each. In addition to air targets, it is possible to strike enemy ships in class before the destroyer. The launch of the rocket engines takes place after it is released from the installation, which provides for the explosion and fire protection of the ship. The range is 70 km (limited to control systems on the ship).
Anti-submarine equipment includes a missilecomplex "Snowstorm" - 10 rocket-torpedoes. The firing range is up to 50 km, the depth of attack is up to 500 m. In addition to this system, two five-tube torpedo tubes are used.
Also on the deck is a large number of small guns, guns and small six-barreled machine guns.
I serve my country
Among the many exercises and combat missions,which came out "eagles", it is worth mentioning one thing, in which "Admiral Ushakov" participated. The cruiser was in our waters when, in December 1983, NATO ships, on the side of Israel, launched military operations against Syria and Lebanon, the allies of the USSR. The ship was ordered to go to the Mediterranean. Here begins the curiosity. When it entered those waters, and it was only a little less than a day before the destination, NATO ships immediately ceased fire and fled to the island area. Approaching closer than 500 km to the "Ushakov" Americans did not dare.
Execute can not be pardoned
The phrase from the old fairy tale, cited above, is verywell describes the situation with the ship at the dawn of the new century. In 1989, when the cruiser was on assignment, the main reducer broke. Then the problems with the main power plant begin, and in 1991 the captain receives an order: the installation for repairs must be made. The ship is parked, but during the following years only one important event takes place - the transfer of the floating craft to the Russian Navy and the renaming of the heavy nuclear-powered missile cruiser Admiral Ushakov. Modernization and medium repairs begin only by the year 2000.
Further destiny fully corresponds to the olda fairy tale - it all depends on where the comma stands. For 20 years (from the moment of staging to the parking lot), this comma changed its position several times. That modernization, then recycling, then a new solution and even a return to the Navy, but it's not final. What will happen next, and whether the "Admiral" will appear in the sea, is still unknown.
One of the few ships in the Russian Navy, the cruiser"Admiral Ushakov" boasts a power plant based on a nuclear reactor. Even today there is no ship in the world's fleet, comparable in firepower to Ushakov. The emergence of the flagship on the horizon in many cases radically changed the alignment of forces in some situations, and it would be very unfortunate if a vessel of this class was simply allowed to scrap.