MAZ-503 - the legend of the Soviet automobile industry

Techniques of Soviet production even now surprise many with their reliability, power and durability. Among the most interesting representatives of the automobile industry of the USSR it is worthwhile to single out MAZ-503.

503 ointments
Launched in 1965 at the Minsk plant, it is still used to transport soil, rock and other heavy materials.


A new model of large-sized machinery wasIt was developed on the basis of the modern and progressive for the time truck MAZ-500. It was a dump truck with an 11.2-liter diesel engine rated at 180 horsepower. For transportation of goods the standard model was equipped with wooden boards.

The maximum lifting capacity was 7.5 thousand kg. Modifications of the MAZ-500 model differed in different types of sides:

  • MAZ-500V in its design had a metal platform, which had a positive impact on transportation capabilities;
  • MAZ-500G had an extended body, which allowed transportation of materials of great length.

Subsequently, these two major modificationsreplaced the new representatives of heavy equipment - MAZ-503 (dumper), MAZ-504 (truck tractors) and MAZ-509, intended for transportation of wood materials. Let's consider the first option in more detail.

MAZ-503: description of the model

Soviet scientists did not invent somethingcompletely new, so the truck in the first years of production almost did not differ from its "father." Significant innovations were introduced in the design in 1970.

It is from those very days when the base of the car servesriveted from stamped parts. The running gear of the truck is supported by 4 semi-elliptic springs arranged longitudinally in the frame. This, in combination with hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers, endowed the MAZ-503 dump truck with load capacity and good cross-country ability.

маз 503 photo
The car was comfortable for long trips. The cabin was an all-metal welded construction of a bonnet layout. It was equipped with a sleeping place and in addition to the driver could accommodate two more passengers. The power steering assisted in steering the car.

For transportation of goods the model was equipped witha universal metal welded platform, in which the tailgate automatically opened and closed on hinges. The hydraulic drive tipped the platform, and a specially built-in valve shook it to ensure complete unloading.


Due to its design the MAZ-503 car has impressive technical characteristics:

  • the maximum load-carrying capacity is 8 tons;
  • curb weight - 7520 kg;
  • the maximum speed is 75 km / h;
  • fuel consumption - 22 liters per 100 km;
  • the maximum twisting moment - 1503 turns / minute;
  • dimensions - 5785х2500х2650 mm;
  • Turn radius - 15 m;
  • clearance (ground clearance) - 29.5 cm.

Because of the relatively large size and turning radius, you can not call the car maneuverable.

503 dumper truck
It is used mainly in quarries of open type, at large construction sites and industrial enterprises.

Engine and transmission

By its patency and load-carrying capacity a dump truckMAZ-503 is obliged to the powerful diesel engine YaMZ-236. The power plant has in its composition 6 cylinders, located in the V-shaped order. The working volume is 11.15 liters, which is why the maximum power is at the level of 180 horsepower.

Cooling system is liquid, with forcedcirculation of antifreeze and thermostatic device. The last device was designed to create the optimal temperature regime, regardless of the weather conditions.

 car 503

The peculiarity of the installation can be called complexfuel cleaning system. Before entering the combustion chamber, the diesel was subjected to coarse and fine cleaning. To this end, two filters were built into the fuel supply system: a cotton roving element for primary processing and a wood pulp filter on a pulverized bakelite binder.

This simultaneously increased the durability of the unit and allowed the use of low-quality fuel. A similar system was used in the engine oil system of a mixed type.

The transmission of the MAZ-503 is presentedmechanical 5-speed gearbox with synchronizers at all speeds except the first. Double-plate clutch dry type with clutches has proved itself from the positive side.

In modern world

In the market of large-sized machinery is no longeryou will meet this representative of dump trucks. They were relevant and in demand until the 1980s, but were later replaced by more progressive trucks built on the basis of MAZ-5335.

But surviving to this daySoviet issue can be actively used at medium construction sites, in agriculture and in some industrial areas. And every year their number is getting smaller.

Soon MAZ-503 (photo of which can besee in this article) will only become a memory. Those who are interested in the Soviet automotive industry, can find a large-scale (1:43) model of the Kostroma plant.